Study by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)
The Foundation Auto Recycling Switzerland was established in 1992 with the primary aim of promoting environmentally-friendly disposal of automobile shredder residue (ASR). This was a positive response by the automobile importers to the requirement imposed by the Swiss legislator for combustible refuse, including ASR, to be disposed of by thermal techniques only, with effect from February 1996. Switzerland played a pioneering role in Europe with its new regulatory provisions. In all other countries, ASR continues to be dumped without any special measures to protect the environment. In the years that followed, the Foundation went on to make an intensive review of ways and means of implementing the criteria laid down by the legislator. In the end, it transpired that the only feasible route for timely implementation was to treat ASR in municipal waste incineration plants (MWIP), together with household refuse and to store the resulting slag in managed landfill sites fit for the future. To cover the higher costs, the Foundation gave generous support to the shredder facilities by paying disposal contributions. In respect of environmental compatibility, thermal disposal was a big step forward compared to landfill dumping. The organic substances present in the ASR were partly converted into energy; the volume was reduced by incineration by 70% and the weight by 50%. Progressive and innovative MWIP operators also achieved further improvements over the years, e.g. in respect of the use of energy and recovery of valuable substances. This and the fact that after the year 2000, thanks to the Foundation, 100% of Swiss shredder residue was treated in compliance with the law, sometimes with the involvement of foreign operators, was a pioneering achievement for our country. The Foundation Board Committee went on to decide in December 2007 ± despite the development of mechanical separating techniques in the meantime ± to remain with MWIP disposal as the main strategic solution. This was done primarily also with a view to achieving other benefits such as short disposal routes based on the many existing plants, disposal in the home country etc. Moreover, mechanical separating techniques also involve problems and difficulties which have not yet been completely resolved. To give the necessary impetus to the sustainable technical development of the MWIP solution, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) at the ETH in Zurich was instructed to conduct a scientific survey with a view to reviewing the MWIP solution and proposing possible improve-
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ments. We have now received their report (December 2008/January 2009). The outcome is satisfactory and may be summarised as follows: 1.
The MWIP solution is both technically robust and proven.
It is satisfactory in ecological and economic terms and comparable to other processes.
Improvements in regard to the recovery of valuable materials can be made. Recovery should advantageously take place from the MWIP slag and filter ash after the incineration process has been completed.
An improved MWIP solution (MWIPplus) is predictably the best of all the feasible solutions.
In advance of our next annual report, we can already indicate that the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) was informed of the results in February 2009. It expressed its satisfaction with the PSI study and gave its full material support to the conclusions. The FOEN gave an assurance that the proposals of the PSI, particularly in the area of slag processing and acid scrubbing, would be examined thoroughly and included in the legislation on the occasion of the forthcoming general review of the technical ordinance on waste (TOW). The Foundation would of course greatly welcome this step and regard it as an acknowledgment of its endeavours over many years in favour of environmentally- friendly disposal. An important step has now been taken: firstly, ASR will be treated in an environmentally-friendly manner in line with the goals of the deed setting up the Foundation and, secondly, other shredder residue (not only from automobile) will also go for clean recycling.
Mechanical separating techniques
As indicated in our last annual report, a mechanical separating technique for ASR is currently being developed in Switzerland under the leadership of the Wiederkehr Recycling AG/Recomat AG companies. All routes leading to environmentally-friendly disposal of ASR are viewed in a positive light by the Foundation. However, for investment contributions to be made, clear criteria must be satisfied, such as a valid operating permit, evidence of safe disposal of the individual fractions, economic viability etc. At present, that information is not available; the Foundation is therefore unable to take a decision.
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Review of the business regulation
The existing business regulation has been in force since the creation of the Foundation. It has now been found that certain provisions need to be adapted and clarified in line with toGD\¶V requirements and practice, always of course within the framework of the Foundation deed. In particular, the terms of reference and tasks of the Foundation Board and Foundation Board Committee will be described in more detail. In the area of asset management, restrictions on securities lending will be listed explicitly. The principles of the provision of services will also be reformulated and sub-divided into disposal, investment and other contributions which will help to attain the purpose of the Foundation. The final decision will be taken at the meeting of the Foundation Board in 2009.
Thermal recycling in numbers
ASR disposal 1996 to 2008: total quantities
Since the beginning of thermal recycling in MWIP, 633,000 tonnes of shredder residue have been disposed of in this way in Switzerland and other countries. Incineration enables space in much more valuable landfill sites to be saved. The flue gas treatment of the present MWIP are extremely effective. Mechanical slag processing to recover metals in some MWIP and landfill sites not only improves the eco-balance sheet for ASR but also that of all waste. Still better use of metals and energy in the ASR remains the goal of the Foundation, as indicated in section 1.
ASR disposal 2008 in MWIP and similar plants: total quantities
The shredder plants delivered a total of 53,993 tonnes of shredder residue (previously: 55,096 t) to the incineration facility. Swiss MWIP processed 24,989 tonnes, German waste incineration plants 6,377 tonnes and French facilities 22,627 tonnes. Exports are approved in each case by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment, which reviews the technical status of the facilities. Average disposal costs, including transport, amounted to 305 francs per tonne. The Foundation continued to pay disposal contributions to the shredder facilities as the disposal costs per tonne are still around one hundred francs cheaper in other countries. For each shredded vehicle, the shredder facility must hand in the cancelled original vehicle logbook and receives an allowance of 28 francs for doing so. A total of 82,195 logbooks were forwarded to the
Annual report 2008
Foundation for settlement. This number of scrapped vehicles is roughly equivalent to a quantity of 18,165 tonnes of ASR, equivalent to just 33.6% of total shredder residue!
Disposal of shredder residue 2008 Niederurnen GL
Zürich ZH Hagenholz
Zürich ZH Josefstrasse
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A glance across our borders
In the EU, a new waste framework directive was adopted in 2008. However, it will be a long time before a general ban on dumping combustible waste in landfill sites has been implemented throughout Europe, of the kind which has already existed in Switzerland for twelve years now. Only in countries in which recycling is regarded as a priority have ASR processing plants sometimes already been built (Germany, Austria), or are currently planned (Netherlands). So far, however, even with these facilities, a considerable volume of ASR still has to be dumped in landfill sites. Since 2006, 85% recycling of end-of-life vehicles has been required. There is still no uniform method of calculation to determine the recycling rate. The calculation is made differently in every EU State; the recycling rates indicated must therefore be treated with some caution. In any reasonable interpretation, the solution adopted in Switzerland certainly meets the statutory requirements of the EU.
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International Automobile Recycling Congress, 12/14 March 2008 in Munich (D) Organiser:
ICM AG, Boswil
Present for the Foundation: Federico Karrer The annual automobile recycling congress is an occasion for interesting presentations and networking. The reports illustrate the status of end-of-life vehicles and ASR disposal in individual countries and the opportunity for processing secondary raw materials such as plastics and metals.
Visit to the Maind ASR gasification facility on 29 July 2008 in Agnani (I) Present for the Foundation: Prof. Dr. Alexander Stücheli Federico Karrer Daniel Christen
In principle, the gasification facility is designed to recycle tyres and waste rubber in order to produce energy. As part of an ASR trial, the Foundation inspected the plant which generates electricity. The slag can be used in a cement works. Maind takes a positive view of this ASR trial and intends to build other facilities in Italy.
VDI Seminar on 28/29 October 2008 in Linz (A) Present for the Foundation: Daniel Christen Subject:
Recycling of the shredder residue to obtain materials and energy
The differing legal background conditions in the EU became clear. On the one hand, landfill sites are still open for untreated waste, while elsewhere processing facilities have capacity which must be used for economic reasons. But these too need landfill sites to dump the fine fractions. Even the latest developments with sensor control sorting systems do not change this situation. Daniel Christen presented ASR co-incineration in the MWIP.
VBSA Congress on 4 December 2008 in Olten Present for the Foundation: Daniel Christen Subject:
Resources in waste, who owns them?
Energy and raw materials are becoming increasingly important. MWIP are positioned as producers of energy which is in part renewable. With the adoption of the new Power Supply Act, interest in energy efficiency and appropriate marketing is growing. Under tKH ³Zaste to enHUJ\´ PRWWR D QXPEHU RI MWIP are already operating as waste-fed heating and power plants. The issue as to whether separate collection of smaller metal waste elements should be abandoned in favour of more far-reaching slag processing was discussed.
Annual report 2008
University of Applied Science of North West Switzerland Muttenz, 13 November 2008
As part of the Master of Advanced Studies in environmental technology and management, 'DQLHO&KULVWHQJDYHDJXHVWOHFWXUHRQ³(QYLURQPHQWDOSROLF\LQWKHSUivate sector illustrated by the example of automobile UHF\FOLQJLQ6ZLW]HUODQG´
The Swiss vehicle market
New registrations increased to 288,525 passenger cars (plus 1.4%). At the end of 2008, some 4 million passenger cars were registered for road use. Exports of vehicles fell 18% to 108,205 cars according to the foreign trade statistics. This means that a good 100,000 vehicles were scrapped in Switzerland and explains the low ASR component in the total shredder residue volume. Swiss market for passenger cars: Exports
Vehicles remaining in Switzerland
Value of vehicle exports
Total on road
FEDRO: FSO: CD: * calculated:
Taken off road*
Federal Roads Office (status as of 31 September 2008) Federal Statistical Office Customs Directorate (Foreign Trade Statistics) new registrations less increase in number on road
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Exports of second-hand vehicles in 2008 (extract): Country
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17
Niger Benin Poland Lithuania Togo Germany Bulgaria France Czech Republic Nigeria Slovakia Bosnia-Herzegovina Turkmenistan White Russia Angola Italy
Exports (CD) 17,963 14,475 12,171 9,289 8,514 7,114 6,732 6,069 2,724 1,891 1,515 1,502 1,448 1,434 1,167 1,052
Value of goods CHF/Veh 1,164 1,503 2,431 3,209 1,267 11,966 863 8,315 5,682 2,254 2,565 4,151 1,187 5,156 1,443 18,246
Source: foreign trade statistics of the Swiss Customs Administration
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Documentation Publications such as press releases, annual reports, INFO newspapers etc. can be consulted on WKH)RXQGDWLRQ¶VZHEVLWHZZZVWLIWXQJ-autorecycling.ch
Membership of the Foundation Board Foundation Board President
a. SR Paul Gemperli*
auto-schweiz Association of Swiss Automobile Importers
Christine Ungricht, Vice-President* Max Nötzli* Walter Frey Andreas Burgener Morten Hannesbo
Automobile Club of Switzerland
Motor Trade Association of Switzerland
Swiss Commercial Vehicles Association
Expert in motor vehicle disposal
Bern Cantonal Office for Water Resource Protection and Waste Management
Martin K. Meyer
Swiss Shredder Association
Touring Club of Switzerland
* Members of the Foundation Board Committee
Daniel Christen, Chief Executive Urs Eberle Foundation Auto Recycling Switzerland Mittelstrasse 32, P.O.Box 5232, CH-3001 Berne Phone +41 31 302 36 24 Fax +41 31 306 65 60 [email protected]