Clinical Chemistry. Introduction - Analytical Chemistry (ACS


Clinical Chemistry. Introduction - Analytical Chemistry (ACS...

0 downloads 114 Views 207KB Size

Anal. Chem. 1993, 65, 304R-404R

Clinical Chemistry David J. Anderson, Coordinator Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio 44115 Frederick Van Lente, Coordinator Section of Biochemistry, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195

Clinical Topics Cardiovascular Disorders (Risk Assessment) Donald W. Jacobsen Departments of Cell Biology and Clinical Pathology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195

Free Radicals Frederick Van Lente Section of Biochemistry, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195

Endocrine Disorders (Parathyroid Hormone) Manjula K. Gupta Section of Immunopathology, Department of Clinical Pathology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195-5131

Daphne Khoo Section of Immunopathology, Department of Clinical Pathology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195-5131

Cancer (Multiple Myeloma and Related Disorders) William E. Katzin Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Mt. Sinai Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4195

Bone Disorders (Osteoporosis) Nuala A. McCarroll Department of Biochemistry, St. James’s Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Max R. Proffitt Departments of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195-5140

Diseases of Metabolism (Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism) Steven C. Kazmierczak Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, East Carolina University School of Medicine, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4354

Psychological Disorders Donald L. Warkentin Overlook Hospital, Department of Pathology, 99 Beauvoir Avenue, Summit, New Jersey 07902-0220

Electrolytes and Blood Gases (Ionized Calcium) Mary F. Burritt Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S W, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 904R

0003-2700/93/0365-0364R$12.00/0

0 1993 Amedcan Ctmmlcal Sockty

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (Immunosuppressive Drugs) David Chou Department of Clinical Pathology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195

Instrumental Topics Molecular Biology Techniques Kristen J. Skogerboe Laboratory of Pathology, 1229 Madison Street, Seattle, Washington 98104

Immunoassays David S. Hage Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0304

Capillary Electrophoresis Yan Xu Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio 44115

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (Direct Injection Techniques) David J. Anderson Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio 44115

Clinical Instrumentation (General Chemistry and Immunoassay Analyzers) Ronald G. Haas

Marshfield Clinical/St. Joseph's Hospital Joint Venture Laboratory, 1000 North Oak Avenue, Marshfield, Wisconsin 54449

Electroanalysis and Biosensors Joseph Wane Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003

Fluorescence Spectroscopy Eleftherios P. Diamandis Department of Clinical Biochemistry, The Toronto Hospital, Toronto Western Division, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8,Canada

Chemiluminescenceand Bioluminescence Larry J. Kricka Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

Flame, Flameless, and Plasma Spectroscopy Nancy W. Alcock Univereit of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, 700 The itrand, Route JO9, Galveston, Texas 77555-1009

Mass Spectrometry Richard Caprioli Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and The Analytical Chemistry Center, The University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030 Alan H. B. Wu Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06115 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 65, NO. 12, JUNE 15, 1993

S85R

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and The National Reference System George N. Bowers Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, Connecticut 06115

John D. Fassett Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Chemistry A31 7, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 Edward White, V Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Organic Analytical Research Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899

Statistics Carl C. Garber MetPath, One Malcolm Avenue, Teterboro, New Jersey 07608

R. Peter Mallon MetPath, One Malcolm Avenue, Teterboro, New Jersey 07608

Arlene S. Swern MetPath, One Malcolm Avenue, Teterboro, New Jersey 07608

INTRODUCTION

Review Contents Clinical Topics Cardiovascular Disorders (Risk Assessment) Free Radicals Endocrine Disorders (Parathyroid Hormone) Cancer (Multiple Myeloma and Related Disorders) Bone Disorders (Osteoporosis) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Diseases of Metabolism (Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism) Psychological Disorders Electrolytes and Blood Gases (Ionized Calcium) Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (Immunosuppressive Drugs) Instrumental Topics Molecular Biology Techniques Immunoassays Capillary Electrophoresis High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (Direct Injection Techniques) Clinical Instrumentation (General Chemistry and Immunoassay Analyzers) Electroanalysis and Biosensors Fluorescence Spectroscopy Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence Flame, Flameless, and Plasma Spectroscopy Mass Spectrometry Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry and The National Reference System Statistics

SOOR

367R 367R 374R 378R 382R 388R 396R 401R 405R 409R 412R 416R 416R 420R 425R 434R 444R 450R 454R 460R 463R 470R 475R 480R

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 65, NO. 12, JUNE 15, 1993

This review is divided into two major sections: clinical and instrumental. Within these sections there are various subsections, each of which are reviewed by individuals having expertise within the topic area. The period covered by the review is specified by the author(s)of each subsection in terms of the Chemical Abstracts date, ending on October 1,1992. The ultimate objective is to bring the reader up to current status within each topic area. Limitations on the scope of topics covered are presented by each reviewer. A table of contents for the review is given. The clinical section is divided into 10 subsections with the division of topics being based on the t e of disease; with the exce tion of several subsections, w h z deal with analytes and tierapeutic drug monitoring. The following subsections are covered: cardiovascular disorders (risk assessment); free radicals; endocrine disorders (parathyroid hormone); cancer (multiple myeloma and related disorders); bone disorders (osteoporosis);acquired immune deficiency disease; diseases of metabolism (disorders of amino acid metabolism);. psychological disorders; electrolytes and blood gases (sodium); therapeutic drug monitoring (immunosuppressivedrugs). The focus of the clinical section is laboratory issues related to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. This part of the review not only serves the clinical chemist by providing a comprehensive summary of the various issues within the subsection’s topic area, but it is also written to familiarize the analytical chemist with pertinent clinical issues. The instrumental section is divided into 12 subsections covering advances in technical aspects as ap lied to the determination of clinically relevant compoun8s. The following subsections are covered molecular biology techniques; immunoassays; capillary electrophoresis; high-performance liquid chromatography (direct injection techniques); clinical instrumentation (general chemistry and immunoassay analyzers); electroanalysis and biosensors; fluorescence spectroscopy; luminescence; flame, flameless, and lasma spectroscopy; mass spectrometry; isotope di ution mass s ectrometry and the national reference system; and statistics. *his part of the review is written to keep the clinical chemist abreast of advances in analytical chemistry relevant to the clinical laboratory.

P