14 OCTOBER 1984
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Brighton Police told of possibleattack
Intelligence warnings that were ignored FVIDVNCE etnerged last night of a major breakdown in security prior to the bomb explosion ill Brighton on Friday morning, in which al least four people died and 31 were injured. It now apppears that firm intelligence suggesting a planned IRA attack in Britain was received by those responsible for security it the Conservative party conference.
Manquestioned BRIGHTON police said late last night that a man was being held under the Prevention of Terrorism Act in connection with the Grand Hotel bombing. The man was detained at Liverpool Airport on Friday night as he was about to board a Dublin-bound plane and was brought to Brighton early yesterday for questioning.
On Wednesday morning the entire British armed forces had been put on alert Bikini Black Alpha, which is specifically designed to counter a terrorist attack. This followed infornuithin from intelligence which indicated. an attack "somewhere in Britain" was likely. No target was specified, hut security at all bases around the country aas lightened, with cars searched and patrols increased. Notices appeared in all the Ministry of Defence buildings saying: " there is an increased risk of attack on government huildings." "There was an expectation Mat the IR.; might do something," admitted one senior military officer yesterday. A senior Scotland Yard source also told Hie Sunday Times last night that police had been on "full alert" belinv the bomb exploded in the early hours of Frnby morning. The source said that this alert had been telexed by Special Branch 1(1 police ;iround the country. including Susses. police, who were in charge of the security in Brighton. "I know that alerts o(..rc sem out to all and sundry," said the Sonland Yard officer. "It went out by telex :.ind letter through the usual net. I !hint: Special Branch handled it." 'the Chief Constable of Sussex. Roger Birch, still insisted yesterday that he had no warning of possible terrorist attack at the conference, "There was no warning of any threat at all." said a Sussex police itirch said he was deter, tiiii to resign unless the inquiry security at Brighton showed a nunor (iclect in his arrangements. "I'm confident it will not so nothing at this stage conld by limiter from my nnnd." In\ estigations into security in Brighton will have to i•econcile the serious differences that have emerged' between arm y, Scotland Yard and intelligence sources on the one hand, and Sussex police on the other. 'There is a ffirther problem. It now seems Mc bomb may luive been planted oeeks beffire the conference began and the question is bound to be asked whether. the intelligence that led to last %cek's alert should have persuaded the seenrity forces to undertake immediately complete I1CW search (date hotel. Police sources now believe they know where the lunub was planted in the (.(i and Hotel: in room 629 on the Hoot, like floors directly above Mrs hatcher's suite. -Hie room was occupied by Donald McLean, president of the
II • 111
Scottish Conservative association, and his wife Muriel. Miraculously.both survived and were said to he comfortable in hospital yesterday alter undergoing surgery. Police believe the bomh was (a inceoled underneath the Iloorboards. I I tick lesby. head of Scotland Yard's antiterrorist branch who has been called in by the Sussex police, said: "II is possible to place the homb and time it to three weeks, three hours and 30 seconds." Com inander II ttck lesby discounted IRA claims that I 00lb explosive was used. Bomb-disposal It officers icckoned was 20lb of commercial explosive, possihly Frangex. The IRA, he ;tdded, IMW has the ability to time a devicc in a l'ar more sophisticated manner than before. The development of a sophisticated miero-electronie timing device, he said, was most "concerning", because "we are entering a new dimension in the timing of these devices". An IRA arms lind at Panghourne, Berkshire, lasi year had a timing device capable of cletonating a bomb at any time up to 42 days. A senior minister yesterday insisted that a political decision had heen made "possihly hy sonie official in Conservative Central Office" - to minimise the
Prior :Why IRA must not succeed Prior talked about the logic behind the IRA attack, arguing fOreibly and with the authority that comes after years ()I 111S PRIoR, until a few handling highly sensitive matweeks ago Northern Ireland erial. seereims.. was trying his hest to "The IRA have been driven sound positive and optimistic. to this because of the reverses Rut the strain. verging on a they've suffered. They are sense of despair, was almost worried about having arms tangthle as he leant across the shipments intercepted. They table in the (biting room of his don't want to see the FitiI (onion Ifit a lew hours after lierald-Thatcher summit suching the horrors of ceed. They hope that they (-an on his televiston. put things off, change people's I int.-dile his flat aimed pollee minds." gu,II II As SO,.)11 aS But Prior said, too. that there II, lake Hie union\ was another dimension. mole Noith till Ireland lob three years difficult for the British public to tlit. tiort ILtI IL ifilleIlCd understand, and one that made that naost IIII,INI.,10111N the joh of the intelligence fOr services I ,11,611;11 POI11111 111s take and the police that rg,1111,,,,' I II, wIll remain a much harder. "I think that they potentiat IPA target for years to are just out to get lb-. Brits. It's ver,,, difficult to assess Elio, diii•a exactly. want to sound It's pirri too desire tOr depresse, part pathologic about this. Al It is a revenge, hatred. l hey want, too, to show ilic,idful thing to have hap!), nett Rut we must people, their not lose supporters Ill North America, sight or dot tact that vie have Mai they are au anti y:' iiemendinis intelligence ( tiLl Inlelligence has What would he do ii he were t int (1101151 y still Northern Ireland secretary? imp) - First, there is simply snow the ininther no easy of times Intelllgence to the, 111Sh problern. I. IL vCr has answer Mat itik they LI uslialcit uoulcl 0111,1 bilies,e. there is any one act of securny that can get this mit Is. imything like LIS 4:lineal %, LII" right. h don't believe in any tis the Said (hal, Brior added 11,1;111g quick solution. tio :toe "It will poitciol be a stow that haul to something rather better. 1 hen! imitillitence work ian always WWI bs the IKA are signs that people iLL the Republic want to fitid v,ay ' I Lle will abvass be a tici; It All Id Ow and everything 111,1%1 he 11,11.1C otitettenec 1111It/ IrIS 1111:1011II IN tile .,-, tot ti tong lune I tritention to destroy Ons II V, (H At', OW mutat, We hioc III make it clear (hal vs 1.,III VIOL 111\-1.'110(1:.
hy Simon Freeman
use of sniffer dogs at Brighton. "The feeling was that the only threat at Brighton would come from demonstrating miners and we didn't want dogs yapping on television at the miners. It wMild look bad.However, the IRA, to undermine the role of the sniffer dogs, may well have wrapped the bomb in cellophane to cut down the distinctive Smell of explosive. Police have confirmed that at least one
search of the hotel using the dogs was carried Out before lite delegates arrived. "If the bomb had been gelignite-based, it could have been wrapped in cellophane, so that the smell could not have been detected," he said. "Or possibly the IRA was using explosives which the dogs had not experienced belbre." This new attack was logical, given the IRA's tradition of carrying out a spectacular demonstration of its prowess in advance Of th e annual meeting of i ts political wing, Sinn Fein, which opens in Dublin at the beginning of November. There were also other reasons to expect an IRA attack, notably the recent successes of security forces both in Belfast and in the Irish Republic, where there have been two major arms hauls. Despite these strong indications, neither the police in Brighton nor the Special Branch appears to have taken the threat seriously. One minister said yesterday: "Brighton police are not competent They were more concerned with stopping miners throwing eggs at us than in stopping the IRA. Once you got inside the outer sein.trity ring you could go where you liked. "I want to know whether there was a catastrophic breakdown in int elligencegathering, or whether information was not communicated hetween police forces. This uie most serious questions about our security operations. I want to know who blundered." It became clear yesterday that neither British intelligence nor Special Branch had any firm idea about the identities of the IRA terrorists involved. A team of 50 detectives led by detective chief superintendent Jack Rose is ,now working through the hotel's register to contact those who have stayed at the hotel in recent months, This investigation, together with other evidence gathered Irom witnesses, has been led into the anti-terrorist squad computer in London. Staitland 'Yard sources strongly denied reports yesterday that they had received a warning Irom FBI contacts to expect an IRA bomb attack in mainland Britain. "If they did know, and I doubt it, that intelligence certainly did not reach Ili."
4) Report, James Adams, Patrick Bishop, Simon Freeman, Barrie Penrose and John Witherow.
Rescuersfind fourthbodyin hotelrubble by Kim Fletcher and Adriana Caudrey FIREMEN sifting the rubble of the Crand flotel, Brighton, last night recovered the fourth body more than 40 hours after the booth blast early on Friday morning. Nine Mil of the 32 people injured were 'dill in hospital, two of them in intensive care. The police said digging would continue until they were satisfied there was no one else in the building. Confirmed as killed in the blast were Sir Anthony Berry. 59, MP for Enfield Southgate; Eric Taylor, 54, chairman of the north - west area Conservatives; and Roberta Wakeham, 45, the wife of the chief whip, John * .t'akeham, ,i.ho was himself Molly injured. "Die fourth body, trapped in rubble on an upper floor, was not formally identified: still unaccounted for was Jeanne Shattock. the wife of Cordon Shattock, the
chairman of the western area Conservatives. - I.he two ictims still in intensive care yesterday at Brighton's Royal Sussex Hospital were INtargaret TOMB, wife of Norman Tebbit, the trade and industry secretary, and John Wakeham, who was trapped in rubble for six hours, IVakeham, who was conscious and able to drink water, has serious leg injuries. Norman who was trapped after the blast for four hours, haS injured ribs and a badly- gashed thigh. ebbirs condition o as described as "stable and cheerful" and he was able hi visit his wife, (SIM 1111'NCOnSC1011S .estertlay. She is paralysed from the necl. down, apart from a %Mall amount of movement in her telt hand. Dr Tony Trafford, consultant plixsician at the hospital, said: "1 he degree to ohich she Wilt recover depends upon how much damage was done to recoverable volitfishills or so ellings. It is too early to give a firm allseter.Also in hospital last night %Acre Donald Ali:lean, the Scottish limy chairman, his Alurial, and it;ordon ShatNick. l,ady Beriy and .lennifer %sere disCharged . esterbroughout the (lax messages of goodo ill and limy ers froin around omit! vrere delivered to the hospital. l'he injured oere terita). by the II lister, Cold V% 0110
The newest Royal:Here is the tuition's first sight of Prince Henry of Wales, who is the third in lihe to the throne, with his mother the Princess of Wales. The month-old prince - "more like ci Windsor than a Spencer" makes his picture debut in the official portraits taken by Snowdon. (The world's most famous family, page 5).
MacGregor told: enough is enough by Donald Marintyre Labour Editor IAN MA('GRE( )R, chairman of the National Coal Board, is under considerable pressure krom Ihe g,overnment to make no further concessions in talks milted at ending the pit strike, which resume tonlormw night. Indeed, sonie senior ministers are said to feel that he may have gone nut Mr already. During three days of talks at the Advisory, (a)Liciliation and Arbitration Service (Aeasi, syhich i.utiournetl last night, MacGregor agreed to reler closures to a non-binding tidependent review hody and to ,Idorit a closure policy in line with the "princtplesof the Plan for Coal, jointly agreed between the government, unionsirat the coal Board in I910s. I hese are two key elements in the hurniula drawn iip lOr the talks by Pat Lowry. the Acas chairman, WhiCh 4i-AS aCtlptC11 hy I hue hoard bill !elected by Ow National limo!' Nlineworkers. I la' 511(1.111g point between the Iwo Is a IllOddiCalliM 10 the Aeas (Imminent suggested during vesteiiltiv's has hy the NI M and the 11 pit deputies' ninon. Nacock..1 N t !NI formilla tabled earlici yesterday by the ILLiLLil Was apparently !elected 1), the t`,1( Nlacf ircit.or said iis hy left the talks: "I ton encouraged. I think Mile is a beginning mulct standing of the Asked whether he had go, en LILLI ),I111111d, 110 Said: "I 11al.1: 11I, gl'OLInd II VI VC:" III 11 1,1111,11%,, IRP,1,1011 had MA Changed !,1114:CMarch. mIchal that II the hoard looked td the 11CIV proposals it vi mild -sec Ihent pioviding the basis iiiiitotrittims that could lead sctilentitni-, tentative plans lot
an NtlM executive meeting today have been shelved iwndmg tomorrow's talks. The most hopeful note was sounded by Ken Sampey, the Naeods president, who said he was now "very optimistic". Seargill last night reported the outcome of the talks to Norman Willis, the "TUC general see-Friary. MacGregor pointed out On Friday that the independent review body len the last word on closure decisions to the board. But the government's worry is that an independent body would carry a moral authority which would be difficult to counter if it came down against a closure proposed by the board. The wording of the formula, accepted by the board, makes it clear that "ffill weight" will he given by the parties to recommendations by the independent body. After a lough seven-month struggle, Tory leaders are worried that Mac(w.i.riledgeo,r has given away too much to have made it worth-
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1 he main pmnh at issue between the miners' union and the board when talks opened yesterday was Over the reference to Plan ffir ('oal, the expansionist la74 and .1977 documents On the future of the! industry. when the last round of talks between the tvvo sides broke up last month the board was insistung On a closine policy in line "with its responsibilities", while the union wanted the of:1(ro(d::!igl:.an line with the Plan
In an attempt to bridge the gap, I owry is understood to have come up with a formula Much dropped the reference to "i,a;:p7sibilities" and which proolised a pollev bile with "the principles of Plan for
Sunday Times contest for new film writers Anyone who has never had a 111F. Sunday lames this week hint or telei ision productiOn announces an unprecedented made from his work can enter. opportunity lor all aspiring screenwriter io have his or her The vvinning script will he first script turned mto a film by made into a 30-mmute movie Britain's leading film ntaker, financed by the National Film I ILLy ILl Pm main. finance ( •orporat Om. David I be Sunday I Imes Ixtovie Plinimin. who won an ()scar - 01111V1iliofl, of lire, wIll hc is Oil, Ill the (SOC tor t. 'harlots responsible for its C1151 over ,10d h rwv, pi,i(a 11,11
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THE SUNDAY TIMES, 14 OCTOBEF 1984 n Colton
Scargillurged strikein '83
British and European featherweight champion knocked out Philipe
FRESH nee of Arthur Scargill's determination to call a inttional coal strike without balloting his union members has been given to "Hie Sunday Times. It reveals that a year before the present strike began, Scargill pressed unsuccessfully for the miners' executive committee to declare an official national stoppage, in a move which would have been unlawful according to last month's High Court ruling. The National Union of Mineworkers and Scargill currently face combined fines of [201,00(1 for contempt of court in defying the ruling that a national strike without a ballot is both unlawthl and a breach of the union's rules. 'f he new evidence is in private minutes (via meeting on March 4 last year of the CX123:11111.3! COMI11111re of the Barnsley-based Officials and Stalk Association, which has the status of an area within the miners' union. At this ineeting, the C'osa secretary, Trevor Hell, gave a report On the meeting Of the previous day, March 3, of the full Nt.1
minutes of Bell's report emergency meeting of the national executive committee was convened on Thursday, March 3, and .the national president ISeargill] had called the national executive committee together to obtain its endorsement for all-out national action in support of the strike already taking place in the South Wales area. It was felt that there was evidence of enough support in the rest of the coalfields to warrant thc national executive committee using Rule 41 to call a national strike without a ballot undcr Rule 43. However, this view was not supported by a majority (tithe committee members who, during the debate, clearly indicated fears that a fragmented union would not be united again." The union's rule 41 gives the national executive power to authorise stoppages at area level. Rule 43 says that a national strike can take place only after a ballot of members. In the event, the union went ahead with a ballot on the Lewis Merthyr closure strike, which was rejected. who have Legal experts studied the Cosa minutes say that this shows .that Scargill's
by Martin Kettle
ANTI-TERRORIST police esterday charged Libyan student, Sa!hen Salem, aged 28, with conspiring Ol cliUse explosiona in London on or about IASI March 9• A second man, held in Birmingham, was also being questioned last night. Last March, injured in a bomb attacks Alanchester.
26 people total
were seven London and of
Gulf ship ablaze A (AUK shipping firm confIrmed• yesterday that the Gair, Fountain was hit by three rockets in an Iraqi air Strike while sailing in the Gulf. The ship was last night still ablaze. .a 11 33 crew o ere picked up.
PROM, lCT1ON of today's Sunday Telegraph nas seriously' delayed last flight 1. hen foundry' staff stopped work after complainiug that asbestos in the department posed a health hazard.
McGuigan wins HARRY McGUIGAN, of
Times Portfolio on
1 i Ines
BRITAIN and Spain are on the verge of signing a new extradition deal which will close the door on Spanish sanctuaries for criminal
hc NOW CCS sa \ that Cat,
Sir Walter Clegg, MP for Wyre, and Lady Clegg, who suffered cuts and bruises in the blast, recover in the Royal Sussex hospital. They both returned home yesterday
Brighton search goes on 1
unless he in Moscow.
paid tribute to the work of the emergency services ile said: "What this hospital has done tills me with the greatest admiration. I would like to express my thanks to them, as well as to the fire service and all the emergency services." Mrs Thatcher was spending the day her 59th birthday - at Chequers. By yesterday morning, the hotel basement, ground, first, second and third floors had been searched, but firemen were hampered in attempts to search areas of the fourth, fifth and sixth floors by the state of the
A senior fire officer-said: "It is dangerous for men working in there, as the movement of any part to try to find persons could involve movement of other parts of the structure. We are doing it
with some trepidation. We fear that if you stand on the rubble you'll just fall down two or three floors." Work nas halted temporarily yvhile structural engineers examined the building. Skips outside the hotel were filled vvith debris and a telescopic crane was brought in to hoist fallen masonry. There oas strict security at the hospital. Some army bombdisposal men examined all letters sent to the injured, while others went to inspect the interior of the Grand Hotel for clues In the type of bomb used. The bombing brought a call yesterday for the restoration of capital punishment for terrorist murder. Peter Bruimels, Tors' MP for Leicester East, said he planned to table a private member's bill. Ile said: ''This might sound
like meeting violenia. with violence, hut it is surely the only thing that terrorists will listen to. " The Popes, in a message to the papal nunciature in Britain, condemned the bombing as "an act of futile hatred". He expressed sympathy for the victims and their families and said he prayed "that God will convert the hearts Of all those tempted to use violence in order to gain their ends." The Archbishop of York, Dr John Habgood, said the attack was the work of "fanatics." Addressing the York diocesan synod, he said: "Our first thought this morning should be to express sympathy with the victims of yesterday's outrage in Brighton, to thank God that the results of it were not worse, and also to give our unqualified condemnation of the act itself and motives which inspired it."
Berry: devotedto papers and party
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SIR ANTHONY BERRY was the sixth and youngest son of the first ord Kemsley, owner of The Sunday Times until Roy Thomson bought it in 1959. Tony Was born in 1925 and educated at Eton.. After four years as a lieutenant in the Welsh Guards, lie went up to Trinity College, Oxford, where he wits a tall, affable, charming, slightb Woostensh figure who was not very academic (he got a fourth in PPE). However, he early showed his interest in politics by publishing and 'co-editing a lush one-off collection called Conservative Oxford, Many Of the star writers on The Sunday Times at that period were to be found is) its handsome pages. After lea v ing Oxford, Tony joined The Sunday Times in 1952 and ran the Letters Page for two years, with the title of assistant editor. Then, in a clearly accelerated promotion, he was briefly editor of the doomed Sunday Chronicle in 1954, the year he married his first wife, Mary Roche, daughter of Lord Fermoy. Hc was next sent to Cardiff as managing director of the Western Mail, where he spent five years until the Thomson takeover. Here he was very popular. He cared deeply about the paper and lavished money on it as his predecessors had been unable to do. With his three surviving
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Others thought to he in Spain whom British police would like to interview include Peter Di.son, one of three men allegedly, involved in a Lloyd's syndicate listud. Britain's keenness to secure a new extradition deal with Spain Ill was made clear by Britian July. He said then that Alw picture of wanted men sunning themselves on leireign beaches. 'outrages the public 5 sense ol justice' . But Whitehall accepts that the key • difficulty is the strict legal requirement that before a wanted person is extradited Iron) Britain. a magistrate ititist. be satislied that there is at least a prima facie case that hc would he committed for trial if the in offences had been committed Britain. Officials now believe that there has been a breakthilough in the eScha nges het ween London and Madrid and that. sufficient con) r11On ground now exists Ibr a full-scale meeting hetween senior officials,
of t hem
'The Allbnsin deciding
Al present, A rgen II ma n5 cannot buy British products not , sell their own to the UK. Britain slopped its own trade embargo with .Argentina at the end of the Falklands conflict.
Buenos Aires suggested last week that this could be a prelude to a restoration of diplomatic relations with BriI a I 11,
Mitterrand, The next step will be Ibr Argentina to lift the embargo on trade between the cols
We nil NO NI SEL FRONt
During the Falkland war, the military junta stoPned Short of Willing the many prorninent BritiSh companies in Argentina, whoSe interests include pen-ocheinical pla its, refineries and tobacco.
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reluctance to give up suspects wanted in Spain. And in July. Spain revealed that it had already 'offered to swap Knighf and Ing friends 'for' a rollaway Spanish shcrry magnate„lose Mateos, who fled to Britain last year after the seriure of his business by the Madrid authorities. Britain refused the offer, a Spanish foreign ministry Official disclosed. When the Knight story broke earlier this year, the press had a field day, suggesting that up to
Argentina to lift British sanctions the
Ledesrna, requesting "urgent" talks. This followed newspaper reports that. fi ve men wanted by Scotland Yard for questioning in connection with the huge Security Express anti Heathrow bullion robberies were living in luxury on the Costa del Sol, safe from British law. • ' 'The five men police -wish to interview arc Ronald' Knight: the estranged husband of the star Barbara Windsor. Olin Clifford Saxe, Frederick Fore-. man, John Mason and John Everett. All are living in thc Marbella arca hut the Yard believes they are likely to flee, to South America if a new treaty is in prospect. Spain has been angered at British press coverage of the Knight case. Madrid broke 'off 100-year-old Anglo-Spanish the deal because of extradition frustration at Britain's apparent
brothers (Lionel, Denis and Neville), he served briefly under Roy Thomson, but all four brothers, in a typical display of family loyalty, resigned together on the same day in 1959. By now, in any event, Tony's thoughts were turning to politics and he ivas elected Conservative MP for Southgate in 1964. He was divorced from Mary in 1966 and married Sarah Clitford-Turner the same year; there were four children by the first marriage, two by the second. For 20 years, he served the ('onservative Party devotedly Me was an opposition whip from 197579) and liked to remind Sunday Times reporters who interviewed him that he had once been an asistant editor of their paper. Indeed, it was widely believed during the Kemsley regime that he was being groomed to edit it. The fates decreed otherwise. GODFREY
Puttingon the Ritzall the way
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the Foreign and Home Offices are due to •meet their Spanish counterparts later this month, probably in Lotadon, to discuss a deal to swap fugitives. Whitehall is confident that the talks will clinch an early agreement to restore AngloSpanish extradition arrangemen ts, which Spain broke off in 1978. • Behind the scenes, negotiations between officials have been going on since July, when the home secretary. Leon Brittan, wrote to the Spanish [Mosier of justice, Fernando
declare a series of arca stoppages as an official national strike was a long-held plan and that the tactic of avoiding a ballot was very much Scargill's,
following the death of Yuri ..Andropov, Ogarkov and Gorbachev represent an increasingly
waf, taking Place hel pointed
His report covered the response to the local the South Wales arca the closure of Lewis colliery,
suggested -some kind
Moscow `,1 flikftle
Di pi ()NI
Challenger yesterday in
TI NI FS
Knives out in Kremlin
member. executive's strike in against Merthyr
A BOMB exploded yesterdas at centre computer a government near N'alletta, Malta. It caused considerable damage hut there o ere no casualties.
I I IE space shuttle landed on schedule
Spainto shu off bolt-hole
r HE SUNDAY TIMES, 14 OCTOBER 1984
Gordon Sackett anet Phi 131114,11
4thfloor Pain contorts Norman Tebbit's face as he is eased from rubble after a four-hour rescue operation TI I E ALLOCATION of hotel rooms to representatives (who are nexer called delegates) to the annual Tory party conference is subject to elaborate etiquette. By tradition, notables from the constituency associations are given at least their lair share of the best 1-00111S Whlih at the Grand lotel in Brighton arc the ones \ erlooking the sea - and thc poilessional politicians, even senior members of the cabinet, ho are essentially guests at tile conference, can find themselves relegated to rooms no vi•w. Thus at the Grand, ministers such as Nigel Lriwson, Sir IScith Joseph, Norman Fowler mid John Billen had lesser accommodation than, say, the chairman or the north-western area of the National Union of Miservative and I'Monist .Associanons or his counterfrom me south-west, or Me president of the Scottish association. It is thanks to that egalitariarnsin that several members or I•ler Majesty's government are not now dead or manned - and it also t:plains why several 'Fury notables are, Police believe that the binith, consisting of 201b of ci!lìçi Fangex or a similar commercial exruin o-baSed plosive, was placed in One of the prime seaview bedrooms Town 629 on the sixth Boor a the hotel. in the centre ilice believe it was fitted ith a timing device and planted. maybe as long as throe weck s ago, perhaps wider the floorboards. Its phicement
the upwaid Flic 1610,i blast did Hit: HRY,I thimage to die Grand's elegant lacade. It blew out the front 4)1 the eCrIlfe bedrooms on the lint', sixth and seventh floors, wrecked their adjoining bathrooms, and took off the roof. Amaiingly, the occupants ()I' umin 629 - Donald M•Lean,
his wile, lidthough
On Friday morning the IRA came within a few feet of assassinating the prime — minister and other key members of Her Majesty's government. Inevitably, the terrorists will try again. "Today we were — unlucky, but remember we only have to be — lucky once. You have to be lucky always," they said. How did it happen? How could it happen? And how will it change the pattern of British political life? Hut
le Hoe nes.,
t,t)()II a \acct..
t tAtic eh.
Tebbits, yet ended up buried six feet beneath them in the rubble. In other words, through chance i in design, the homb inflicted the maximum damage on the prime bedrooms on CVCry fkaff, Where anyone unaware
etiquette might have expected the most. notable VIPs - the cabinet ministers to be sleeping. The main fitrce 01
In the Northern Ireland assembly elections or 1982, and the general election of 1983, candidates of Sinn Fein, the IRA's political wing, increased their share of the vote to the point where they could nearly outstrip the moderate Social Democratic and Labour Party in claiming to be the principal representatives of the Catholic community. So, last Christmas, when rebellious hawks bombed Harrods, the doves felt strong enough to rebuke publicly the terrorists. But, in the European Parliament elections last June, Sinn Fein's Danny Morrison was trounced by the SDLP's John Hume. The ballot box was not working quickly enough for the hawks, who demanded a return to violence. The doves resisted and the argument raged throughout the Summer. 'fhe hawks won. The first sign of this came on September 4 in Ulster when a car bomb exploded without warning in the border town of Newry, and 65 people were injured. There was also a renewed wave of attacks on members of the 1.1Ister Defence Regiment along the border, 'Fhen, three weeks ago, early on a Saturday morning, Irish police descended on a remote
Victims found here
The upward blast destroyed the hotel facade; the downward
blast was internal, but deadly
bungalow at Lusk, just north of Dublin. They uncovered 1,000 timing devices Mr bombs. A week later came another clue that something was brewing: the Marna Anne, a trawler fmm County 1,.:.erry, was intercepted by an Irish naval corvette. Aboard were several tons of arms and ammunition. The IRA had clearly been
I he Inost ,y as also me
1() be It,
I I hat had
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hatcliti said 'We needed ti\ o tci Ills lit omit t ist make Mt- militants:1i 11C1 kit s l ungt-1 fiat.
55,11 11('s t i t s I ii (Ili' CWIltil)11 eiir or 19-1-1. It emphasit,e(1„ mat le-empliasiseil. lor iti/en's dinv 10 tend ci s government
mousier in hei closing speech in firighnun. tools part ()I her text Iront a SIhilt' 1);l1u'l "ICI"
consclvallSc like rt(ting I I ii
h raft 1, ,(
sing I think, 01. Denis
Il9C1 11 ( 110%
planning to renew its campaign of terror. The security forces hoped they had been thwarted at least for the tinte being. That calculation could not have been more mistaken: the micro-cireuitry of the tinting device which detonated Friday's bomb at the (3rand was, according to
ni i iusiiliita,uiS isis C been iransItirmeil the public servict', the nali()ISallsetl industries, private tirms, nlost 01 Mem by clostue. Bin the peoitle the same.
to pay it.
speck h Nigel
by NICHOLAS HARMAN
ol(.1 James I t(iitlV
hancHlor sin himself but nokaah; \. inning d non-stand:own Im a (bill
by'd. v I I iOWI
HOWE SUITE 111111
TIIF Provisional IRA has always believed in the "last push" theory - that if it did something awful enough on the mainland, the British public would demand that Britain wash its hands of Northern Ireland for ever. But in recent months the IRA hawks have been restrained by the so-called "doves", who wanted to pursue political objectives.
th, . (vCrIl lint
Norman Tebbit, the industry secretary, and his wife, Margaret. On the first; Sir Geoffrey Howe, the foreign secretary, was saved only by the fact that his centre room is part of a suite, and serves as the sitting room; he was asleep in the bedroom next door, which was untouched. Tons of masonry fell into the vertical shaft, crushing MAIIC of those who had plunged into it, yet leaving others virtually unscathed. tiordon ShattOck suffered only lacerations to the face and body, but his wile was killed. Eric Taylor and Sir Anthony Berry died; their wives escaped with cuts and bruises. And, in that awful lottery, there were other inexplicable events: for room,
A lady still not for turning
blast that was more devastating, arid deadly. From top to bottom of the hotel, the floors of the centre seaview bedrooms collapsed; it was as though some monstrous drill had bored a vertical shaft from the roof to the basement. In the seventh-floor centre bedroom, above the blast. Harvey "lhomas, the conference organiser - and the organiser of Billy Graham's evangelical missions to Britain - was, lortunately as it turned oni, hurled front his bed. That accident saved hint: he landed, not in the shaft, but buried in the debris of what had been the lifth-lloor bathroom, shaken hut not badly hurt. The guests below him were inn so lucky, On the sixth Boor, Gordon Shatiock, chairman of the western collaties, and his wile, Jean, plunged into the void. So, too, from the lilt h-floor bedroom, did Eric Tayloi, chairman of the north-western region, and his wife, Jennifer. From the fourth-floor bedroom, John Wakeham, ory chief whip, and his wife, Roberta, From the third-Boor bedroom, Sir Anthony Berry,
the blast passed near enough to Mrs Thatcher's suite to have considerable hope of killing her, and very nearly did: her bathroom, a mere wall away from the shaft, was mangled; she had visited it twO minutes before the bomb went off. is all too clear that the choice of location fbr the bomb was not chance.
HYA MALI:INLAY, GLNLRAI'IONS
THESUNDAYTIMES,14 OCTOBER1984 ,
No comfort for the IRA
the IRA took IN the early hours of Friday morning, of the into the bedrooms of terror its campaign of a hair's breadth It came within cabinet. 'British and most of her minister thc prime assassMating out the heart of the - of wiping senior ministers Since such is the stuff of pulp government. British it is hard - even for those who witnessed the fiction of what the full enormity event - to appreciate fact is that the IRA almost was. But the inescapable to Hitler came closer than Guy Fawkes or Adolf of this representatives the elected eliminating much No doubt that will give the terrorists country. this weekend, as they shrug off the cause for comfort of their attack on the fact that the actual victims a out to be wives, turned warmongers" "Tory MP. But Tory and a harmless chairman regional Britain need not despair. bomb is going to succeed For a start, no terrorist failed. The oldest where the might of the Luftwaffe in the world will never be brought to its democracy knees by a small band of evil thugs. from British Nor can the IRA take any comfort of the In the aftermath to its atrocities, over-reaction bomb, liberals will call fbr a new political Brighton while the right to meet the Ulster problem, initiative to wipe out the will call for a new security offensive IRA. Either would delight the IRA. If the army goes On the rampage in the Falls Road then it will bring bombs are cause. lithe niore recruits to the terrorist then the IRA concessions political seen to provoke We to earn; on bombing. will have every incentive learned both these lessons over the have painfully realise and her ministers past 15 years. Mrs Thatcher even that it does not pay to react to the last atrocity, experience of it. when they have first-hand realisation more important, But there is another, bring no joy to the IRA: there is a which should that the and Dublin awareness in London growing and that whatever enemy is the common IRA is paper-thin and the Irish the British separates to the gulf between both peoples and the compared most the aftermath, Brighton the In IRA. the Irish, prime front came words cm-inn-aging whose sorrow was FitzGerald, Dr Garret minister, that the bombing by his determination matehed closer wriuld only serve to bring Britain and Dublin were echoed in an editorial t ageilwr. His sentiments in full today 'Flw Irish Times which we reprint the sort of mood which will beeause it illustrates allow Britain and Ireland to defeat the IRA together. to stand shoulder and Dublin cn if London the IRA will not he snuffed out however, shonlder. So the security of our elected leaders will crnight. Of course, hai.e to be better than it was at Brighton. as tlw police have been anxious to point out, there is ilo such thing as total security against the bomber or But there is such a thing as inadequate gunman. and that seems to have been the case in 'as:tiros, Brighton. the before I I hours afternoon, Thursday fin build two men in dark suits, of medium espIosion, Hotel the Grand entered mid-30s, and in their the lobby and around 'Uhey looked unchallenged, wore no They rooms. public several into went con lerence passes and at no stage did anyone ask for In fact, They left after 10 minutes. identification. of The Sunday Times and a they were the editor some to find unsuccessfully trying MP Torv easily have been the could tea. They alternoon advance guaai of an IRA active unit. It is a trivial breaches at of the security example No significant page today shows far more Our front Prighton, ones. signincant the last of the old-style was probably Brighton in which the masses get to rub - conferences, idols. The British like with their political shoulders which surrounds security to sneer at the elaborate But we are going to have to presidents. American of the times that trom it. It is a sad testament the from have to be shielded politicians elected now democracy But British people they represent, - activists its ntir share of irreconcilables nniilinS who ;ire prepared to blow up the ballot box if it does result. The IRA is the most not produce the "right" but it is not alone. extreme of these irreconcilables, on the number of groups, particularly ,An increasing far Wft, are prepared to turn to force and violence if they do not gel their way. Until they have been seen off we will have to be morc vigilant.
THE IRISH TIMES
Steady Britain the Brighton I hiN rott-th Ihe Irivh Tones veNterday.
I I IL past 15 years have seen so many outrages in that the language of condemand Britain Ireland Four human lives nation has been all hut exhausted. snuffed out. All decent people ha% e been wantonly remarkable "rebbit's at Mr Norman rejoice will escape and pity the expression of anguish on his face., enough but there arc, alas, a good many sick-minded But the event to gloat over the deaths and iinuries. its and astonishing and remarkable so was though that - inevitably so terrifying implications has reaction public unfortunately perhaps of the actual less on the sufferings nicentraoat about what might have cnoims than on speculation IRA tried to kill Mrs The Provisional happened. of I halChh' and With her perhaps several meinhers that hs so doing they I hey believed her cabinet. '11-wy a crisis of the first magnitude. could provoke because
to express regret ve the insolence nu" dies failed. is outrage Ireland, nationalist For indignant
lepodiation world. The
'Fainseach last night trolly spoke 01 "Our IRA deep anger at the arrogance of the Provisional iii of Our tradition, Pi the nallie 'ow Mese floors in the name of our the ncifie ot oui aspiration. It is is nut enough. Bid repudiation legitimacy". the realities of IRA actions to und(rstand important and ids opposed to the hornhast of IRA statements) are these as insofar consequences likely their at all,
I hi assassination
of the prime
a not provoke hut it would event, of Britain rhe governance iii Britain. ri'i mann who Mc same, anybody -ic,ould ha v C gone on Much It would not Britain. doeS not know thuds s otherwise verS
have Nought li-eloed, No the
about British it might have
and north ot It eland. impeded Nkitti Id ha%
and a united
hopes of eonso.And that ol course is the progres• oolitusd tutuioal 1.hat is an aim in • PlOt r.w,r1-41 IRA, ;s'al ihrit k`t hiHt
to so: 0, • O•
the political MICHAEL JONES conference Brighton the of significance
of much unfinished indication determigreat and business to get on with the job, a nation
enhanced her. kill
commitment to efforts
clearly, showed Brighton file speeches and rank
on conference rapturous reception His Thursday. showed that he has the party, MrS in his pocket whenever decides to go. He. Thatcher was by far the most active such last To many Thatcherites, broadcaster ministerial in the Cillise oral! but crusades week. His ordeal at the hands talk smacks of left-wing social crisis. national the gravest analyses also of the IRA will only add to his Walker engineering. Peter Walker, sole cabinet often at the view, strikes credentials as the most likely of the Tory representative to succeed, should he so wish. encouraged by Mrs Thatcher, wets, went out of his way in to need future lies in the the of Britain's that Aware Walker the of suspicious at- she said on Friday. That was anti-Scargill his bristling "We will base, he his policy service industries. expand Conservabrand of "creative line her answer to Walker. "We are tack to urge a median not achieve that if there is called for a union of capital from derives which tism", for great and good fighting between the pursuit of econhe told to service", and labour, citing his forerunnothing Macmilthe and Macleod was lain That added. she causes," and social efficiency omic Eden and A ners as Churchill, Group. the Tory Reform Nation One of school lan Biffen. to answer her Thatcher Mrs compassion. a sure sign of his high-productivity Macmillan, high-wage, of view the be refutes It to likely Toryism. is Neither herself recognised the force of awareness ot' the Tory love of economy depended on a mix market of perfection the with that. Walker's her satisfied that complaints the The jibe and service historical continuity. of manufacturing Tory fixces, even with state safeof long-term for analysis is uncaring government that he is no more than the industries. is as rooted in a guards against abuse, and calls people objectives the needs of ordinary is unSkinhead Chingford the most Tehbit, Norman freedom. for wider instead classless, declinewho may not be up to the competitive, ever again. to stick likely hero of the Thatcheassertive and poverty from Freedom Mrs as credo breaking new brave her o(' challenge Tehbit showed last week, in showed none rite revolution, slum housing; a society "unBiffen's Thatcheworld, "We are fighting, as we Thatcher's. unemotional his confident, and Walker of qualms the of or race class, by more divided even are credentials rite for the have always fought, o mes a approach to the challenge that hesyfLed when Biffen be gaps". may generation She impeccable. weak as well as the strong," faces him that he is more his than astute politically detractors realise. He needs a success to ,major departmental crown his transition. on the left and Walker Tebbit on the right now offer a in Tory contrast fascinating a developing styles within consensus. Thatcherite showed Heseltine Michael once more last week that he can bring the Tory faithful to their feet by playing, almost shamelessly, on their yearning touch. for the Churchillian he has no definable But inside the party constituency the and has largely avoided tussle confronting ideological generation. the post-Thatcher Of thc rest of' the younger set, shows Brittan Leon only to enter the arguambition seriously. ment off-hand Lawson's Nigel speech reinforced conference the impression that he is not a in the leadership contender stakes. But at least he has the that of knowing satisfaction unless he succeeds at the all the new Tory Treasury philosophers are wasting their t intr. Norman Tebbit : "His reception showed that he has the party In his pocket"
time for Tory zeal
IT would be wrong to consign enconference the Brighton to the ides marked tirely IRA. and Scargill Arthur Brighton also gave the Tories time to address questions that. do not usually bother parties with large majorities in parliapolls ment and thc opinion namely, what kind of party arc they and how will they use the expect power they confidently to have for many years yet? special 'Thatcher's Mrs to Tory history contribution will not be properly assessed for some years yet. Contrary about to all the speculation her succession, she showed no the sign last week of quitting stage. Indeed, she gave every
from ample offered the rostrum evidence, that the Tories have become infected with ideological zeal during the Thatcher years and that the lady herself it is not averse to calling Thatcherite. marketis militantly It fuelled by a zeal orientated, unquite privatisation for matched by any correspondfor enthusiasm ing Labour It is passionstate ownership. a as befits classless, ately which prides itself leadership on success through merit and views the old Tory patronage also is It disdain. with eager to break desperately Britain's endemic resistance to top-league of pursuit the and inflation-free prosperity economic growth. spirited most the Even to break efforts Thaicherite out of a long spiral of national not do however, decline, the aoin the Tories exempt last as involved, problems the John Haien, week showed. scepmost eloquent cabinet's calling against warned tic,
In the shadow of the Brighton bombers: a policeman surveys the damage to the Grand's blasted upper storeys and roof
novving of orde'r 11-1E traditional - tragedy events historical was as farce repeated on Brighton in reversed Grand The morning. la-iday succeeded, lotel homb almost con`rito Street the where of I 820 to assassinate spiracy cabinet was iverpool's ord
a laughahle ladure, Iliac was nict just
defensto improve Ftions are not enough, ive security scope there is surely although last on implovenient for arrangemenls. week's .1usl onc llms in' omission k-kkiek`11 1.111101ifilllt,, a se, And
thi' tc.dcw, f. tco,
' and pattern siipgcsts
it appears -senseless' hislEct
I as ‘vhich I se. is its Omuta ry purpose, as pumaL.,,,a [Ida il It It lads 11511 headcalm!! e Me noi dfIes ierriiI noted
ielegates pievious the comitioimlace.
ttl lon-rors I his has
in dirt already happened the treat metlia on(lon 1110 id the permit.. sulfermg,s daily But Ow Irelaml. cif !shrill-tern lose because terroi ist cannot ts of yioleni"e the ai-cephmce e and (testi-to:to as ilehilitating violence the ris societyto
or perclimate torlii‘„'s a v II dence entleime vast I I kk:an II nitwit-11y revolutionary OW .11 Its 1110k•ki d;IngC:100%. No is such a mos einem. IV.5 (m hosed II inyer
porn111,e posesses alms
the inadc()Ilt•Cdr: tit a pm ely equacy terrorism. 1111 ulliocl ,Ippoirteh 'flocsa beg nin,,t Me, 01 reassessment itindamemal by understandmill-toils their at( tip ApaIll`d, ing tv I Ia I thc 11111110(1N
an incontains 'harm-ism to CtiCalaillnl. tenrIeris-v herent
another ddierent outrage, terrorist in its scale and audacity only hut an ailaCks, hann prevIMIS modern i i1 unique event ui wilt(' out I int cs: dri attempt Mrs government. the lh aish et'd S in tesponse hatcher's to and the challenge Intuch into calm" her -icy translate act um, considered
cmnthe nationalist among for the IRA. But Mr mutiny this Prior himself demolished evening. on Friday theory Then it is argued that firmness to repression, is tantamount hc hotught cannot movement democracy which through or a negoto a compromise work tOr does the terrorists' tiated settlement. movement them by destroying itself: A revolutionary ilThis danger is surely like the IRA learns from the has of experience lusory. The government and inethods and powers legal the all I t has kept overseas. comrades it needs. authority tOreign links since the 1920s executive Public Opinion would eagerly when its leaders visited Bola concrete sign of techniwelcome shevik Russia. Today's VVhat we are determination. cal leaders m revolutionary the from talking about is not respondcome violence as mere to terrorism middle cast and in the 1970s ing links with the propaganda or theatre but an had the IRA British act of war ou the ladalti. P1.0 and ( 'olonel and people. outrage ech- constitution The Brighton resolve 'The government's o•s the new wave of maitile should take life in the creation Iranian, terror eastern unit in the of the of an anti-terrorist Syrtail. antl i h ufanatics bomb who cabinet office, under a nonlstimiuic.1iliad in Beirut, minister of state el»has.sies departmental WosIern
PETER SHIPLEY on the urgent need for a cabinet anti-terrorist arm
ss hole pi (-sent. I Il HICII 1111)01 is sit tiggle lakes rivet di sad aro prilitii-of titii the turatogv. Alter
\sins li told the ai nitIo14 armed
on the Grand A lid the attack this to emulate seemed !loud of the politics new terrorism, Was it Mere inntatmassacie. more there were. (ir ion Will connections? :twit-tete on the questions tluese. basic he activity pa octal of terrorist into taken and studied
in Whitehall? in this sphere
aaount It is action urgently
glaringly isinost And needed,
yet Whitehall holds something hack First it is the helief that
to the prime directly to answerable and
The unit should and a planning section, with outinject to in brought siders fresh thinking into policy, plus arm made up an operational of members of all the relevant departments, government police and security agencies. and resources Hie material need they now; are there galvanising into action.
parliament. comprise analytical
lima lag month Peter Shirley Amid/ admer in the prime , policy (intr. ,w,,,,ter't
THIS MYFICE DOES NOT E()NS-FITUTE AN OFFER FOR SALE AND THE STOCKS LISTED BFLOW ARE NOT AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE DIRECT ER051 'THE. HANK OF ENGLAND. or EICIAL DEALINGS IN THE STOCKS ON rio. sT(X'K EXCHANGE ARE EXPECTED TO COMMENCE ON MONDAY, I 5th OCIOBLR, 1984.
STOCK OFGOVERNMENT ISSUES The Bank of England announces that Her MaIesty's Treasury has created on 12th Otsober 1984 anti has Issued to the Bank, additional amounts as indicated of each or the Stocks listed lielow;
2003 £100 million 2 1/2 per cent INDEX-LINKED TREASURY STOCK, 2015 E200 million 2 Y2 per cent INDEX-LINKED TREASURY STOCK, file once paid by the Bank on issue Was in each case the middle market closing prnT 01 the relevant Stock on 12th October 1984 as certified by the Government u1.1case. the amount issued on 12th October 1984 represeno a funher tranche tliti-(ctt1 of ihe ieleyant stock, tanking in all respects pan passu wtth that Stock and subject of its prospectus, save as to the particulars therein to the terms anti which related solely to the initial sale of the Stock. Copies of the prospectuses for the Stocks lotted above, dated 22nd October 1982 and 14th January 1983 respectiveb, rnav br obtained at the Bank of England. New Issues, Watling Street, hoidon, 14-451 9A5 Application has Nfen made to the Council of The Stock Exchange for each further It'anche of stmk to he admitted to the Official List. The Stocks are repayable and interest is payable half-yearly, on the dates shown below tpros;sion Is made in the prospectuses Mr stockholders to be offered the right of early redemptIon under certain cIrcumstancesy Interest paymentdates date Redernpuon 20th May *20th May 2003 cent Index-Linked '2''''ItYierkier 20th November Treasury Stock, 2003 26th January 26th July 2016 per cent Index-1 inked 26th July Treasury Stock, 2016 Roth the princIpal Of and the interest on the Stocks are indexed to the General Index or Retail Prices. The Index figure relevant to any month is that published seven months previously and ielating to the month before the month of publleation. l'hr Index figure relevant 10 the month of issue of 2 12 rr cent tndesLinked freasury Mock, 2001 IN that relating to February 198 (310.7 the equivalent Index figure tin I r, per cent Index-Linked Treasury Stock, 20Ih is that (n..1-hese Index figures voll be used for the purpOses of relating to May 1982 I 1.22. cakulaling payments of proirmal and interest due urwrespect of the relevant further lranclies of Stock. The relevant Index figures for the haltyrerly interest payments an the Stecks are as MIlosys: Relevant Indev figure Relaringto able Puhlikhed in hpeary ittr,urese; September Oc lobo' of the previous year May April of the same year June of the previous year NMMoaaFehmber December atilt previous year Dealings in the further tranche of 2 VI per rent Index-Linked Treasury Stock,2003 for settlement prior to 20th November 1984 will, in common with the existing Stock, be effected on an es-drxidend basis The further tranche of 2ft per cent Treasury Stock. 2016 wIt rank for a rult so months' interest on 26th jilildlyes-Linked )i N.GLAND '-.8E.5 fl ik"N"KrYclf )a LON DON
Ilth °ember PIM
$ Wm% Me•
Covered in dust, his face bloodied, Tory MP Sir Walter Clegg and other victims huddle in blankets, comforted by delegates in evening dress. (Right) A stunned Sir Keith Joseph IL. CONTINUED PROM 1/I PAGE 1S
the police, identical uncovered at Lusk.
AS IT HAPPENED, the Brighton police and the conference organisers were expecting trouble - but not from the IRA. As Sussex's Chief Constable, Roger Birch, told reporters on Friday afternoon: "If you were asked to give an intelligent projection of the most likely trouble, for obvious reasons it would have to he demonstrations or public disorder." In short, they expected striking miners to turn up. Reinforcements from nearby forces and support units from the Metropolitan Police were drafted in. The London MCII were billeted at Butlin's holiday camp at Bognor. When no miners had turned up by Tuesday evening, the police breathed a huge sigh of relief. Birch was responsible for the overall security of the conference. At 53, he is a shy, polite, old-fashioned sort of policeman who started his career 29 years ago on the beat in Devon. Married with one son, he became deputy Chief Constable of Kent and Chief Constable of Warwickshire before taking over Sussex a sear ago last June. He agreed tha t securit y inside the conference hall next door to the Grand should be the responsibility of severai hundred volunteer
of beaches. Three seas in which
to sail, iiwirm
frolic: the Indian Ocean, hay of Bengal, AraLian Se& A varier)/ of lirst Liaiis Inter national hotels, many right on
the beachand all offering the ultimate
tion at extremely
c orrinioda roaoriable
prices. WI &lie else in the world could it be, tau India?
'We heard cries for help. The foyer was full of smoke and frightened faces' stewards front I he Conservatives' south-eastern area, but front-door checks should be made by professionals, from Inter Globe Security Services, a lirm hired by Conservative Central Office. Security at the Grand was largely in the hands of the police. However, the prime minister's personal salety, and the safety of "vulnerable" ministers, such as the home secretary, was the job of personal protection officers from the Special Branch, who were on 24-hour watch. So, how good was the security? At the conference hall delegates remarked at the beginning of the week On its tightness compared with previous years. But it eased as the week went on. At the Grand things were pretty easy-going from the start. It was easy to enter the public rooms on the ground floor either through the main entrance or through several side entrances. Cabinet ministers wandered around openly, with only the more senior men escorted hy bodyguards, identified by their bright red lapel badges. In addition, the lobby of the Grand - just one door below Thah;her's suite - was awash with non-resident conference
delegates attending receptions, drinking and simply hanging about. "Security was extremely lax," said 28-year-old Bob Bailey. a Liberal county councillor who was employed as a temporary barman by the Grand. He was one of 25 extra staff taken on by the hotel for conference week. "I walked in every day with a bag," he said. "Nobody asked to see the contents." Security on Mrs Thatcher's floor was much tighter although one member of the prime minister's policy unit said he was surprised he could walk into her corridor without having to show any identification or reveal the contents of his briefcase. A Special Branch officer told him: "It's OK, we know your face." But on the upper floors of the hotel there were few, if any, precautions. On Wednesday Roy Bradford, former Unionist Stormont MP who had a sixth-floor room, had been casting envious eyes on a room opposite his with a sea view. "It was open all morning," he said, "and I thought about trying to move into it and went to have a look. It was all made up. I looked in in the morning and then at
LicilirAI ion that goo back over 10,000 years, A .ivilisation very mut h iti evidence today in the extra ordinary wealth of temples arid palaces, i'.iFbits and soundsiof India behual I he beache. !rich& 'I he choice is yours.
Ideally, VIPs should have been scattered among hotels throughout Brighton, reducing the chance of a mass attack. Assuming that this was not a realistic option, there are still precautions which could and should have been taken. There should have been constant checks for bombs, using electronic equipment and police sniffer dogs. Entrances to key buildings like the Grand should have been guarded and everyone entering checked. Ideally this would mean a body and baggage search but, at the very least, it should have included identification cheeks.
the aftermath of the blast, cabinet ministcrs wandered the promenade aimlessly, unprotected and apparently unaware of what they should do. Before Friday's attack one Scotland Yard officer had, in a joking aside, dismissed the scenario in the television thriller, The Glory Boys, in which a hit squad of an IRA man and a PLO assassin pumped bullets for several minutes into an Israeli scientist. The Yard officer said: "It could not happen like that. 'The police would have dropped the hit team immediately." Yet in Brighton in the early hours of Friday morning the IRA could have made a second assassination attempt with a few marksmen. The police say that British politicians traditionally reject
the sort of heavy-handed, high-visibility protection favoured by, say, American leaders. "And even the Americans, despite all their secret servicemen and guns, lose leaders like Kennedy," said one senior Yard source. This argument is accepted by diplomatic and YIP protection specialists. But they insist that the inquiry into the bombing at the Grand must probe the sort of measures taken by police before the conference. Did police vet all hotel employees? Did police check any hotel staff with Irish connections? Had police checked the backgrounds of building workers who, until two weeks ago, were employed on renovating the Grand's lobby and bar? Inevitably on Friday corn-
parisons were being made with the stringent security that surrounds other world leaders - particularly the American president. The day President Reagan arrived at the US equivalent of Brighton - the Republican party convention in Dallas last August - all the guests at his hotel were cleared from their rooms at 7am and kept out for three hours while a bomb search was completed. From then on, the hotel was like a fortress (seepanel). The British political scene will now, almost certainly, become more like this, and the seaside conference season will never be the same again. It will be a dramatic - and sad change of style. ON the
THURSDAY last time
activists mingled freely with the mighty. As the 101st Conservative conference approached its end, young Tory dandies stood nonchalantly outside the Grand, some sporting white ties and tails, while the last evening of traditional celebration got under way. Just along the promenade, thcre was dancing to the sound of the Zoochi Band and the Cyril Leppard Disco at the conference ball. Alec Pickersgill, agent for Tony Speller, said: "I'd never miss it. It's the highlight of the conference." At about 10.30pm, Mrs Thatcher arrived for half an hour there, taking "a couple of twirls" on the dance floor as she left. In the Starlight room of the Metropole Hotel, John Wake ham and his wife enjoyed a. jovial dinner in the company of Edward du Cann, chairman
night, for a Tory
CONTINUED ON Olo, PAGE 18
There should have been A well-planned procedure in the event of a terrorist attack. In
How they protect the president
dayii when you feel like a little cull ural enlightenment instead of rarefree hours in the re inern ber India is proud of
lunchtime and the door was still open." In theory it should be simple to protect any potential target of terrorists. Several experienced security specialists - including one former Special Branch officer - gave The Sunday Times these guidelines (though admitting that the need for public accessibility at a party political conference makes the more extreme measures impractical):
conference, security took a poor second place to personal contact, and the grassroots
Jon Connell reports from America on the ultra-tight security cordon that surrounds the president away from home ON
TIIF day that Ronald Reagan arrived in Dallas for the August Republican convention, all the guests in the $100-anight !mewl Anatole hotel were cleared from their rooms for t hree hours. Hie guests were awoken at 7am and told they had to be out of the hotel hy I I am. Police, Secret Service agents and a pecial unit from the t /5 army then nioved in with metal detectors and bioub-sniffing dogs to scour the hollers 1,620 hedromns from top to bottom. Only at 2p11'i were guests allowed back in. Otis meticulous search shows the tightness of the security
THOUSANDS OFBEACHES. OCEAN OF S CII .
cordon around the president o hen he travels. Never oils it tighter than at the emotionally charged and highly publicised Dallas convention. The Secret Service is prim-
arily responsible for guarding him. It had begun planning for Dallas weeks in advance: it had v*orked out the safest routes for the motorcades between the hotel and convention centre, a different route for each trip; it ran a computer check nn all local "nuts" who had previously issued threats against the president; il even infiltrated the limers staff, putting in a female bartender for a few weeks b• II neliand. Before Reagan atrii al, all or
Phlue'. lilt,. billet
and the centre lime checked, lit storm drains tont air-
cooditiouing ducts. A chaiti tencc ivas put lip round COM l'Ili11111 cconrv, (t111C, (11 11;116(1-
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and PI OleCied
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Body guarding: the Service keeps Its eye on Reagan lir all, between 600 and 800 Secret Service and smne 200 FRI agents came lo Dallas to reiliforce the thimsands of local police, The Anatole itself was turned foto the fortress that, front the outside, it resembles. NO one without a special pass was allowed in, and those who were went through metal detectors so. sensitive that they even reacted to the thin under-wire in some women's bras, There were more natal detectors and X-ray machines on the flour of the wing for Reagan and his entourage. The Secret Service took over the floors immediately above and below him for the two nights Reagan stayed in the hotel. All this may Weill obsessive, even unnecessary. it certainly did to many journalists coterink the convention. Rut in a country w here political assassination is now an ever-present possibility, the Secret Service takes MI chatIcCtr, l'our Amerkall presidents have already died by the hullo, and Reagan himself has already been shot at. Despite eler)thing that was done ill Dallas, however, it is douhtlnl as ime esPert
even this security apparatus could deal with a determined and ca er terrorist attack,
wi ong with his 1i pptttC.
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Soon after, this gr dual paralysis will render him totally helpless. Finally,in his teens,he won't havethe strength even to feed himself. Before long, he won't need to. WhA a waste.To tind out what we are doingto discovera Dept. ST;
Freepost,London SW4 OBR.
MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY GROUP
A rescue truck among the debris and a defiant Mrs Thatcher on the last day of the conference: the show went on ... CONTINUED FROM PAGE 17 of
McAlLord At the Grand, party treasurer, pine, the joint a later hosted and bon viveur, by attended party in his room, and the Wakeham both John The few not enjoying Tebbits. Mrs included themselves who prepared staff 'Thatchers of burst another yct for on her big efThrt exhaustive to the to be delivered speech the 1011owing aftercc-inference noon. the conferwhen lam, At ,Alec Pickersence hall ended, the seafront along gill moved in the bar party for a birthday was jam"It of the Grand. he said, at that time," packed "but at 2am the bar closed and to drill began slow ly people end It was a typical away. People evening, conference anything about were chatting to - talking everything and we seeing the people contacts, 'Fhere only see at conferences. there 70 people about were ordering just were we Rnd we heard a noise when coffee like thunder." that sounded
'Good morning, I'm d lighted to see you' inwas that bomb The the assassinate to tended her and ,ster mini prime into have fitted would cabinet suitcase. sized aVerage an have would explosive The but would tightly been packed the have been useless without material (the explosive primer of the the hulk that explodes (which the detonator bomb), (he triggering impulses scuds and most and li nally, primer) It is this the timer. crucially, be can - which mechanism an alarm from made crudely watch wrist or ordinary clock the f'rom appears which to have at the Grand evidence It is sophisticated. been highly that it was set to even possible go off three weeks after being at planted set and the bomb the hotel. Styles, the legendary George who expert disposal bomb Cross in 1974 won the George Northern in work his for that the has no doubt Ireland, "ammunitiou so-called IRA's
the in officer" was an accell Brighton complished bomber. The men the gathering in involved the scouting explosives, Grand, and arranging accomodation, may well have ben in the town for weeks or months but it is unlikely, thinks Styles, that the bomb expert himself highly valued by his superiors - would have risked travelling to Brighton before absolutely necessary. is no possibility There and Styles, to according Sunday The to confirmed
by senior police sources Timcs control remote - of the kind used by the ERA when device
Lord Mountbatit murdered ten. "There is too much static in a hotel to and interference risk using that sort of device. You couldn't be sure it would go off when you wanted," says Styles. As for planting experts
for responsible those and security it police cell say that the IRA
have been made up °las could as eight or nine men ormany could and the team women, a Brighton into moved have or a year ago. It week, a month indepenworked have could cominand, of the IRA dently been told only having perhaps to select a key target. It may into the itself have infiltrated in the constantly hotel, Grand
shilling casual staff in, say, the could The killers kitchens. have set up home in Brighton, in the limn lOr some working time. 'Fhey may not even have fled. that the admit Yard officers I RA when gone are days and drunk got terrorists or about their exploits bragged to tried to return immediately
attack. an after Belfast their from learnt "They've One anti-tersaid mistakes," - as the governofficer rorist and the party the Tory ment, well know now country officer station Fred Bishop, was fire brigade, at Brighton minutes. on the scene within that heard the firemen When had gone off at the an alarm that it was they joked Grand - somefalse alarm another lire Grand's the tlist thing become had system alarai they When for. notorious see the could they arrived but hole in the facade gaping the at one no was there "It windows. was uncanny,"
said Bishop. "Normally crowding get people
Report by Patrick Bishop, Muriel Bowen, Adriana Caudrey, Jon Connell, Simon Freeman, Michael Jones, Barrie Penrose, Chris Ryder and John Witherow. Research by Carol Baker and Sara Walden.
window, of li Ie."
was no sign
leading a Norris, Dave was one of the first fireman, He came men into the building. surrounded upon Mrs Thatcher All officers. Branch by Special slightly pointing held handguns in the air and were obviously for her safety. edgy and worried She was wearing a dark suit and alalong. hustled being was to say to she managed though I'm morning. "Good Norris: to see you." delighted the viewed occupants Other British similar with disaster he was, how Asked phlegm. the of leader Bitren, John had a "I've replied: Commons,
disturbed night." But some people were in no conditio to be calm. Sir Walter Clegg, 64-year-old MP for the North Fylde seat of Wyre, was led down the corridors by his wife, blood streaming down his face. Lady Clegg summed up many people's experience that night: "We left the excitement and the hroght of the foyer, lights to go up to bed. When we
later, three hours came down, there was smoke everywhere, faces." frightened and a fireman McKinley, Tom Bishop. with arrived who into the mound moved quickly floor. on the ground ot rubble screaming. Ile heard a worman fireman The out", me "get bells oir the the alarin smashed the hear could so they walls Jusi injured. cries of the other in the first floor ceiling, Mow that weni ot rubble the column they basement, to thc down Noonan of hal the spotted Tebbit. in a IStetal lying was fie in wrapped partially position, Ile had a beam Ins mattress. or his back the small across his one trapping and another his lett hand held legs. They continuto him talked and to try jokes cracking ously, conscious. him keep and ot deal in a great Although calm. remained Tebbit pain, said got a lot of guts," "Ile's a Wils never "There MeKiiiley. even Of him, out whimper I caliscd he WC SU011 though
1 he lemur." a In ()ken had ‘vhen came complaint only hod on los ;Ka identaly Bishop iCaa, bloody At shouted, 1 elabit Fred," of team another 5.44am to extract managed hiemen the wreckfrom Ntrs Tebbo OK but she age. "She seemed below said she had no leeling said. McKinley her neck,"
refinally had they when delviss the Id most moved Bishop 1 chInt, around brim I le fro'. him ii u wrench tried found i grab him [(etched leg ViMulld a large gaping by illy; pocketa dainp 'like to was beginning time Tehbit lor itnd asked the strain show the McIrrun rests frequent they Just berore vork. nunstenetl they out got hint hiand water with lips his his around Stnill; s \\. died Forcing a smile on los ouitith. ki.;.V. -Thal said:. he marvellous.bloody the milt', with Compared fell who v limns void behind awlul imposing Iloters was, as it turned the lucky ones.
ills t down Ow Graild he faeade out. one of
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