Flavor Chemistry - American Chemical Society


Flavor Chemistry - American Chemical Societyhttps://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/bk-1989-0388.ch010by JC Boudreau - ‎C...

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Chapter

Neurophysiology of

and

Mammalian

10

Stimulus Taste

Chemistry

Systems

James C. Boudreau Health and Science Center at Houston, Sensory Sciences Center, University of Texas, 6420 Lamar Fleming Avenue, Houston, TX 77030

Single unit recordings were taken from sensory ganglion cells innervating oral taste buds in the cat, dog, rat, and goat. Neurons were divided into 9 groups largely according to stimulus chemistry. A sodium-lithium system was seen in the rat and goat but not the cat and dog. Amino acid responsive neurons were seen in a l l species except the goat, with major species differences. Amino acid responsive neurons were also, except for the cat, responsive to sugar. A nucleotide system was seen only in the cat. Acid (Brønsted) responsive neurons were seen in a l l species, but the cat and dog acid taste systems were different from others. A system responsive to furaneol and other compounds present in fruit was seen only in the dog. A system exclusively responsive to alkaloids was found in rat and goat. Type of taste systems present can to a certain extent be related to species' ecology and dentition. Flavor chemists typically subdivide the perception of food into three types of sensations: taste, smell and flavor. This latter category almost invariably consists of sensations during consumption. The flavor sensations are considered largely to arise from the stimulation of smell receptors, although research has not demonstrated this to be so. From a biological and physiological point of view, these flavor sensations have l i t t l e r e a l i t y . In biology, food odors have been found to have l i t t l e to do with consumption, being primarily concerned with c

0097-6156/89/0388-0122$06.00/0 1989 American Chemical Society

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

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10.

BOUDREAU

Neurophysiology and Stimulus Chemistry of Taste Systems 1

orientation. Consumption i s under t h e c o n t r o l o f c o n t a c t c h e m o r e c e p t o r s o r t a s t e . F l a v o r s e n s a t i o n s must then c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y o f t a s t e s e n s a t i o n s and/or s e n s a t i o n s a r i s i n g from t h e simultaneous s t i m u l a t i o n o f b o t h t a s t e and s m e l l r e c e p t o r s . I n t h i s r e p o r t t h e n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y o f mammalian t a s t e systems i s reviewed w i t h e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o stimulus chemistry. The n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y d e s c r i b e d i s p r i m a r i l y t h a t f r o m o u r l a b o r a t o r y , s i n c e we h a v e b e e n among t h e few n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i s t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t i m u l u s chemistry. The a n i m a l s t h a t h a v e b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d e t a i l a r e t h e c a t , d o g , g o a t a n d r a t . Work on o t h e r a n i m a l s i s i n c l u d e d where c o m p a r i s o n s a r e v i a b l e . Anatomy a n d P h y s i o l o g y Four c r a n i a l nerves subserve t h e sense o f t a s t e , t h r e e o f t h e s e ( f a c i a l , g l o s s o p h a r y n g e a l and vagus) i n n e r v a t e t a s t e bud s y s t e m s ( F i g . 1) a n d one ( t r i g e m i n a l ) s u p p l i e s f r e e nerve ending r e c e p t o r s . Both o f these types o f r e c e p t o r s respond t o chemical s t i m u l i . Only t h e t a s t e bud s y s t e m s o f t h e f a c i a l and g l o s s o p h a r y n g e a l n e r v e s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l w i t h many f o o d compounds. The n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n u s e d was m e t a l e l e c t r o d e r e c o r d i n g s from t h e sensory g a n g l i o n c e l l b o d i e s i n t h e g e n i c u l a t e ( f a c i a l nerve) and p e t r o s a l (glossopharyngeal) g a n g l i a o f anesthetized animals ( F i g 1). This p r e p a r a t i o n permits long term e x t r a c e l l u l a r r e c o r d i n g s from sensory neurons w i t h t h e i r p e r i p h e r a l and c e n t r a l e x t r e m i t i e s i n t a c t . Neurophysiological m e a s u r e s t a k e n i n c l u d e d s p o n t a n e o u s and e v o k e d a c t i v i t y , and r e c e p t i v e f i e l d p a p i l l a e s y s t e m m a p p i n g w i t h l a t e n c y measures. The s p i k e t r a i n s r e c o r d e d f r o m f i r s t o r d e r t a s t e n e u r o n s h a v e some u n u s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F i g . 2 ) . A l l t a s t e neurons have a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f spontaneous a c t i v i t y . T h i s spontaneous a c t i v i t y i s o f t e n o f a h i g h l y complex n a t u r e . " B u r s t i n g " , i n which t h e s p i k e s appear i n s h o r t r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d i n t e r v a l s a r e common, a n d "grouping" i n which a pseudo-discharge appears i s a l s o not unusual. When e x c i t e d by o p t i m a l s t i m u l i two t y p e s o f d i s c h a r g e may o c c u r . I n one, t h e s p i k e s a r e tonically occurring with usually a f a i r l y rapid decline i n t h e f i r s t few s e c o n d s . I n the other type, the spikes may a p p e a r i n g r o u p s , o f t e n a f t e r a l o n g l a t e n c y . The f i r s t t y p e o f d i s c h a r g e i s common t o most g e n i c u l a t e n e u r o n s ; t h e s e c o n d t o some g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n u n i t s and most p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n u n i t s . Examples o f evoked d i s c h a r g e s recorded from p e r i p h e r a l sensory g a n g l i o n c e l l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2.

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

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FLAVOR CHEMISTRY: TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS

Figure 1. D i a g r a m o f t h e t h r e e c r a n i a l n e r v e s a n d a s s o c i a t e d sensory g a n g l i a t h a t i n n e r v a t e t a s t e buds. As i l l u s t r a t e d , e l e c t r i c a l r e c o r d i n g s were t a k e n f r o m s i n g l e neurons i n t h e g a n g l i a . Geniculate ganglion i n f a c i a l nerve; p e t r o s a l i n g l o s s o p h a r y n g e a l ; nodose i n vagus.

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

10. BOUDREAU

Geniculate Ganglion

Neurophysiology and Stimulus Chemistry

Petrosal Ganglion

G G salt units PG salt units

Geniculate —

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125



NaCl

H — " 1 H« H H »

M ·• • U t i l

i l '·

I t t

.

f

.

1

1

SA.e m Petrosal NaCl 1

« • •

1

GG acid units PG acid units

' ' » " * ·Ί



Mil

m

se.e

Geniculate

Malic Acid • U M f l l



M

I !• H I W I I . l l l . H f « m i l »

se.e m

Petrosal f ' •'

Malic Acid » —

— i.i i l ι ι

Ml

. Ill

111 ι

III

H I

5β.β MM

Amino acid (sugar) units

Geniculate »

ι

Sucrose

i n i i n i m i m i i i

— I | -

«••»•

mmt

η » •

mmt ι i t f i a t

• — Htl Μ

ΙΘΘ.Θ rai

Petrosal

Saccharin , Ι Ι Ι Μ Μ — •

X units: alkaloid and alkaloid plus units

β \

Geniculate

I l l M i l I

l H II I I I II

I

I IB I I

Quinine HC1

5.β m

Petrosal

Quinine HC1

DOT PLOT 12 SEC. PER LU€

F i g u r e 2. T a s t e s y s t e m s o f t h e r a t g e n i c u l a t e (GG) and p e t r o s a l (PG) g a n g l i a . Location o f receptive f i e l d s i n d i c a t e d by a d o t on tongue f o r each neuron studied. E x a m p l e s a r e shown o f e l i c i t e d s p i k e d i s c h a r g e f o r neurons from t h e s i x d i f f e r e n t n e u r a l groups i d e n t i f i e d .

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

126

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Neural

FLAVOR CHEMISTRY: TRENDS AND

DEVELOPMENTS

Groups

I n e v e r y a n i m a l s t u d i e d , t h e n e u r o n s c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f n e u r a l g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e c h e m i c a l s t i m u l i t o w h i c h t h e y were r e s p o n s i v e . The n e u r a l g r o u p s t h a t b e e n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e mammalian g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n (GG) and p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n (PG) a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1, a l o n g w i t h some o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Geniculate ganglion neurons have been s t u d i e d i n f o u r s p e c i e s ( 1 ) , b u t p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n u n i t s have been s t u d i e d o n l y i n t h e r a t ( 2 ) . The g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n u n i t s c a n be p l a c e d i n t o a t l e a s t seven d i f f e r e n t n e u r a l c a t e g o r i e s , but a g r o u p may be a b s e n t f r o m one s p e c i e s o r may r e s p o n d t o a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l u s a r r a y . The n e u r o n s i n t h e r a t p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n have been t e n t a t i v e l y d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t g r o u p s , b u t two o f t h e s e g r o u p s a r e s i m i l a r t o r a t g e n i c u l a t e ganglion groups. A l l told, at l e a s t n i n e d i s t i n c t p e r i p h e r a l t a s t e s y s t e m s c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the four species s t u d i e d . Most o f t h e s e n e u r a l groups have a l s o been d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n peripheral f i b e r recordings i n other l a b o r a t o r i e s (1). The m a i n c r i t e r i a u s e d t o c l a s s i f y t h e u n i t s i n T a b l e I were s t i m u l u s r e s p o n s e m e a s u r e s ; i . e . , t h e u n i t s d i s c h a r g e d o r were i n h i b i t e d by d i f f e r e n t c h e m i c a l compounds. I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r c r i t e r i a were u s e d t o supplement the chemical s t i m u l u s response differentiation. Thus, t h e two m a i n g r o u p s i n t h e c a t ( a c i d u n i t s and amino a c i d u n i t s ) c a n a l s o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by s p o n t a n e o u s a c t i v i t y m e a s u r e s , l a t e n c y t o e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n , area of tongue i n n e r v a t e d , and d i f f e r e n t i a l r e s p o n s e t o s o l u t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e ( 3 - 5 ) . T h i s c o m p a r a t i v e work h a s l e d t o a m o d u l a r v i e w o f p e r i p h e r a l t a s t e systems i n which the d i f f e r e n t n e u r a l groups a r e seen t o have d i s t i n c t r e c e p t o r s r e s p o n d i n g t o d i s t i n c t types of chemical s i g n a l s (e.g., Br^nsted a c i d s and B r ^ n s t e d b a s e s ) , w i t h e i t h e r e x c i t a t i o n o r i n h i b i t i o n . The s t i m u l u s c h e m i s t r y o f t h e s e g r o u p s w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . S a l t Responsive U n i t s . One o f t h e n e u r a l g r o u p s w i t h t h e s i m p l e s t s t i m u l u s c h e m i s t r y i s t h e GG s a l t s y s t e m f o u n d o n l y i n t h e g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n o f t h e r a t and goat. These u n i t s are o n l y r e s p o n s i v e t o sodium o r lithium salts. When a s e r i e s o f CI s a l t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c a t i o n s a r e examined, o n l y t h o s e w i t h Na and L i e l i c i t l a r g e r e s p o n s e s ( F i g . 3 ) . Na and L i a r e e f f e c t i v e w i t h o t h e r a n i o n s as w e l l , a l t h o u g h r e s p o n s e s a r e l a r g e s t w i t h I and F ( 6 ) . The o n l y o t h e r g r o u p o f n e u r o n s r e s p o n s i v e e x c l u s i v e l y t o s a l t s was t h e r a t PG s a l t u n i t g r o u p ( F i g . 3 ) . These u n i t s of the p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n r e s p o n d e d t o a v a r i e t y o f CI s a l t s , n o t s h o w i n g t h e Na,

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

10.

BOUDREAU

Neurophysiology and Stimulus Chemistry ofTaste Systems 12

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Table I Mammalian P e r i p h e r a l N e u r a l

Taste

Groups

G e n i c u l a t e G a n g l i o n ( F a c i a l N e r v e ) : GG. P e t r o s a l ( G l o s s o p h a r y n g e a l N e r v e ) : PG Group

1. GG

Stimuli

Species

Salt

System

2. GG A c i d

System

3. GG Amino A c i d System

Rat

and G o a t only

R a t and G o a t d i f f e r e n t from C a t and Dog Cat

and

Ganglion

Dog

Na

+

and L i

Br^nsted

+

acids

Proline, Cysteine, Hydroxyproline, Lysine, Alanine

4. GG N u c l e o t i d e System

Cat

only

ITP,

5. GG F u r a n e o l System ( P r o b a b l y m a i n l y PG)

Dog

only

Furaneol, Ethyl Maltol Methyl M a l t o l

6. PG Amino A c i d System ( a l s o i n GG) 7. PG A l k a l o i d System ( a l s o i n GG)

Sugar, S a c c h a r i n , Amino A c i d s

Rat

Rat

and

8. PG A c i d

System

Rat

9. PG S a l t

System

Rat

ATP, e t c .

Goat

Atropine

Restricted carboxylic

set of acids

KC1, C a C l M g C l , NaCl 2 /

2

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

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FLAVOR CHEMISTRY: TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS

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PETROSAL

CO LU

GENICULATE

CL CO

f

:

ϋ ο ϋ

ϋ *

F i g u r e 3. R e s p o n s e s o f r a t GG s a l t u n i t s a n d r a t PG salt units to a series of chloride salts. Each p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p i k e r e s p o n s e i n a 10 s e c o n d p e r i o d t o a 50mM s o l u t i o n . Note t h e e x c l u s i v i t y o f r e s p o n s e o f GG s a l t u n i t s t o N a C l and L i C l .

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

10.

BOUDREAU

Neurophysiology and Stimulus Chemistry of Taste Systems 1

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L i e x c l u s i v i t y shown b y GG s a l t u n i t s . I n addition, t h e y e x h i b i t e d l o w d i s c h a r g e r a t e s and s l u g g i s h e v o k e d discharge patterns. Nucleotide Responsive Units. C e r t a i n o f the c a t u n i t s were o b s e r v e d t o d i s c h a r g e o n l y t o n u c l e o t i d e s a n d o t h e r p h o s p h a t e compounds. In addition t o these nucleot i d e u n i t s , some o t h e r c a t u n i t s a l s o d i s c h a r g e d t o n u c l e o t i d e s and o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s . In general, the d i and t r i - p h o s p h a t e n u c l e o t i d e s w e r e t h e most s t i m u l a t i n g f o r t h e n u c l e o t i d e u n i t s a l t h o u g h b o t h AMP a n d IMP e l i c i t e d respectable responses. Tetrasodium p y r o p h o s p h a t e was a s t r o n g s t i m u l u s and s o d i u m p h o s p h a t e a m o d e r a t e one. T h e s e u n i t s e x h i b i t e d l o n g l a t e n c i e s t o e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n , low spontaneous a c t i v i t y r a t e s , and " g r o u p i n g " e v o k e d d i s c h a r g e p a t t e r n s . No s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e c e p t i v e f i e l d s was o b s e r v e d . Furaneol Responsive U n i t s . Found o n l y i n t h e dog w e r e a s m a l l number o f u n i t s r e s p o n s i v e t o a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t compounds known t o b e i n t e n s e l y s w e e t f o r t h e human. E s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e was t h e compound f u r a n e o l [2,5 d i m e t h y l - 4 - h y d r o x y - 3 ( 2 H ) f u r a n o n e ] and t h e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d e t h y l and m e t h y l m a l t o l . A l s o s t i m u l a t i n g were ammonium g l y c y r r h i z i n a t e and ( s l i g h t l y ) n e o h e s p e r i d i n dihydrochalcone. Some u n i t s w e r e a l s o r e s p o n s i v e t o quinine. No r e s p o n s e was shown t o e i t h e r amino a c i d s o r s u g a r s , n o r were s a l t s o r a c i d s s t i m u l a t i n g . These f u r a n e o l u n i t s were t h e o n l y u n i t s i n any s p e c i e s responsive t o intense sweeteners. F u r a n e o l and o t h e r compounds w e r e t e s t e d o n many c a t u n i t s a n d some r a t u n i t s b u t no d i s c h a r g e was e v o k e d . The d o g u n i t s p o s s e s s e d s m a l l f i b e r s and d i s p l a y e d " g r o u p i n g " discharges, often with long l a t e n c i e s . I t i s quite l i k e l y that these u n i t s are representative o f a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n o f neurons i n t h e p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n o f t h e glossopharyngeal nerve, a preparation not studied i n the dog. A c i d Responsive Units. A l l species possessed an a c i d t a s t e s y s t e m a l t h o u g h t h i s s y s t e m was n o t i d e n t i c a l f r o m species t o species. The s y s t e m was l a b e l e d " a c i d " b e c a u s e t h e most s t i m u l a t i n g compounds w e r e B r ^ n s t e d a c i d s and t h e l e a s t s t i m u l a t i n g were B r ^ n s t e d b a s e s . The most e x c i t a t o r y compounds w e r e c a r b o x y l i c a c i d s f o r a l l species. Also stimulating, but at a v a r i a b l e rate, w e r e p h o s p h o r i c a c i d s and a s m a l l number o f n i t r o g e n compounds f u n c t i o n i n g a s B r ^ n s t e d a c i d s . Histidine, f u n c t i o n i n g a s a B r ^ n s t e d a c i d , was a c t i v e i n a l l species. The compounds w i t h p h o s p h o r i c a c i d g r o u p s were l e a s t a c t i v e o n t h e r a t and g o a t . S a l t s such as NaCl and KC1 w e r e a c t i v e o n t h e r a t and g o a t t h o u g h l e s s s o . The a c i d u n i t s i n t h e c a t w e r e s t u d i e d i n t h e most

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

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d e t a i l . I t was f o u n d t h a t i m i d a z o l e was e v e n more s t i m u l a t i n g than h i s t i d i n e . A small group o f n i t r o g e n h e t e r o c y c l e s when p r o t o n a t e d , were t h e most e x c i t a t o r y compounds f o r t h e c a t . The h e t e r o c y c l e s , imidazole, t h i a z o l i d i n e , and p y r i d i n e w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y h i g h pK»s w e r e e x t r e m e l y e x c i t i n g a t a pH o f 7.0. I n t h e c a t ' s n o r m a l d i e t o f meat, a pH b e l o w 5.5 i s r a r e l y e n c o u n t e r e d , r e n d e r i n g most c a r b o x y l i c a n d p h o s p h o r i c acids nonstimulating. Present i n large quantity i n a n i m a l t i s s u e s i n f r e e f o r m however a r e h i s t i d i n e d i p e p t i d e s : a n s e r i n e , c a r n o s i n e and o p h i d i n e , depending on animal species. Dog a c i d u n i t s w e r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o those i n the c a t . P r e s e n t i n t h e r a t p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n was a n o t h e r set o f acid units responsive p r i m a r i l y t o c e r t a i n carboxylic acids. U n l i k e t h e c a t ( 7 ) , t h e r a t was u n r e s p o n s i v e t o some c a r b o x y l i c a c i d s e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e i n l o w pH s o l u t i o n s ( 2 ) . P o s s i b l y t h e same i s t r u e f o r t h e r a t GG a c i d u n i t s w h i c h were n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a s much d e t a i l . PG a c i d u n i t s , u n l i k e a l l o t h e r a c i d u n i t groups, responded i n a "grouping" d i s c h a r g e f a s h i o n . G o a t a c i d u n i t s seemed i n b e t w e e n c a r n i v o r e a n d r a t a c i d u n i t s , b e i n g more r e s p o n s i v e t o p h o s p h a t e compounds. A l k a l o i d Responsive U n i t s . Present i n t h e r a t and i n t h e g o a t were u n i t s w h i c h were r e s p o n s i v e p r i m a r i l y t o a s m a l l group o f a l k a l o i d s . These u n i t s were found i n t h e g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n where t h e y were few a n d i n n e r v a t e d t h e b a c k p a r t o f t h e t o n g u e . They were f o u n d i n l a r g e r number i n t h e r a t p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n . These u n i t s e x h i b i t e d long l a t e n c i e s t o e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g s m a l l f i b e r diameters and d i s p l a y e d " g r o u p i n g " evoked d i s c h a r g e p a t t e r n s . The r a t a l k a l o i d u n i t s w e r e maximally discharged t o atropine, quinine, c o l c h i c i n e and s p a r t e i n e . The g o a t u n i t s were m a x i m a l l y d i s c h a r g e d by p i l o c a r p i n e , q u i n i n e a n d c o l c h i c i n e . Few o t h e r n o n a l k a l o i d s w e r e a c t i v e a l t h o u g h C a C l o was s t i m u l a t o r y f o r some r a t a n d g o a t u n i t s . A few u n i t s i n t h e c a t w e r e maximally d i s c h a r g e d by a l k a l o i d s (mainly q u i n i n e and b r u c i n e ) b u t t h e y were n o t s t u d i e d w i t h a n a r r a y o f alkaloids. Amino A c i d R e s p o n s i v e U n i t s . Found i n t h e g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n o f t h e c a t , dog, and r a t , b u t n o t i n t h e g o a t , a r e n e u r a l g r o u p s h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e t o amino a c i d s ( F i g . 4). The amino a c i d u n i t s o f t h e d o g a n d r a t , b u t n o t o f t h e c a t , a r e a l s o r e s p o n s i v e t o s u g a r s . The amino a c i d units o f a l l three species are also responsive t o n u c l e o t i d e s b u t l e s s s o i n t h e r a t . The r a t amino a c i d u n i t s a r e d i s t i n c t from t h o s e i n t h e c a r n i v o r e i n t h a t d i f f e r e n t amino a c i d s a r e m a x i m a l l y s t i m u l a t o r y , a n d t h e d i s c h a r g e r a t e s a r e u s u a l l y much l o w e r . An amino a c i d g r o u p o f n e u r o n s was a l s o d e t e c t e d i n t h e r a t p e t r o s a l

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

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10.

Neurophysiology and Stimulus Chemistry of Taste Systems

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F i g u r e 4. R e s p o n s e s o f t h e amino a c i d g r o u p s f r o m three d i f f e r e n t species. A l l s o l u t i o n s 50 mM. No amino a c i d u n i t s were s e e n i n t h e g o a t .

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

1

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FLAVOR CHEMISTRY: TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS

g a n g l i o n where, u n l i k e i n t h e g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n , t h e s e u n i t s f o r m e d t h e most p o p u l o u s g r o u p . The r a t g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n amino a c i d u n i t s a r e s i m i l a r i n general i n t h e i r stimulus response p r o p e r t i e s t o the r a t p e t r o s a l g a n g l i o n amino a c i d u n i t s . C a t amino a c i d u n i t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y d i s c h a r g e d b y two d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f compounds: t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g phosphate groups, such as sodium phosphate, tetrasodium p y r o p h o s p h a t e , and a l l d i - and t r i p h o s p h a t e nucleotides; and c e r t a i n amino a c i d s . Monophosphate n u c l e o t i d e s e l i c i t e d l i t t l e r e s p o n s e f r o m amino a c i d u n i t s . The most e f f e c t i v e amino a c i d s i n e l i c i t i n g d i s c h a r g e were L - p r o l i n e , L - c y s t e i n e , L - o r n i t h i n e , L - l y s i n e , Lh i s t i d i n e , and L - a l a n i n e . C e r t a i n amino a c i d s s u c h a s L t r y p t o p h a n , L - i s o l e u c i n e , L - l e u c i n e , L - a r g i n i n e , and Lp h e n y l a l a n i n e t e n d e d t o i n h i b i t c a t amino a c i d u n i t s . The i n h i b i t o r y p r o p e r t y o f t h e L-amino a c i d s h a s b e e n related to the hydrophobicity of t h e i r side chains C a t amino a c i d u n i t s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of stimulus s o l u t i o n s i n c l u d i n g n a t u r a l foods s u c h a s c h i c k e n and l i v e r (8, 9 ) . The most e x c i t a t o r y compounds, a s i n d i c a t e d above, t e n d e d t o be e i t h e r comp o u n d s w i t h a p h o s p h a t e g r o u p o r compounds w i t h a n i t r o g e n group. The D amino a c i d s t e n d t o be l e s s s t i m u l a t o r y than t h e L forms. The most e f f e c t i v e s t i m u l i f o u n d i n c l u d e d s m a l l h e t e r o c y c l i c n i t r o g e n comp o u n d s s u c h a s p y r r o l i d i n e . I n h i b i t o r y compounds were m o s t l y a l k a l o i d s , n u c l e o t i d e b a s e s and c e r t a i n h e t e r o c y c l i c n i t r o g e n compounds. The r e s p o n s e o f c a t amino a c i d u n i t s t o n i t r o g e n h e t e r o c y c l e s c o u l d b e r e l a t e d t o two s t r u c t u r a l and c h e m i c a l f a c t o r s : ( i ) a s t e r i c f a c t o r ( i n p a r t i c u l a r r i n g s i z e ) and ( i i ) t h e r e l a t i v e b a s i c i t y o f t h e h e t e r o c y c l e s as i n d i c a t e d by pKa v a l u e s . C a t amino a c i d u n i t s were a l s o d i s c h a r g e d by N a C l a n d KC1 s o l u t i o n s , b u t t h e t h r e s h o l d s were a b o v e 50 mM. A l t h o u g h t h e most s t i m u l a t o r y amino a c i d s were i d e n t i c a l i n t h e dog ( e . g . , L - c y s t e i n e , L - p r o l i n e , L l y s i n e , L - h i s t i d i n e and L - a l a n i n e ) , i n t e r s p e c i e s d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e s i d e c h a i n p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e amino a c i d s . T h u s , amino a c i d s w i t h h y d r o p h o b i c s i d e c h a i n s were n o r m a l l y i n a c t i v e o r i n h i b i t o r y i n t h e c a t , b u t were o f t e n e x c i t a t o r y i n t h e d o g . C o n v e r s e l y , amino a c i d s w i t h a c i d i c s i d e c h a i n s t e n d e d t o be somewhat more e x c i t a t o r y i n t h e c a t . The r e s p o n s e o f t h e r a t amino a c i d u n i t s t o amino a c i d s was q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h a t o f t h e c a t and d o g . L i t t l e r e s p o n s e , f o r i n s t a n c e , was e l i c i t e d f r o m r a t amino a c i d u n i t s by most o f t h e d i - and t r i p h o s p h a t e n u c l e o t i d e s , and s o d i u m p h o s p h a t e was i n h i b i t o r y . The most e f f e c t i v e amino a c i d f o r r a t u n i t s was L - a r g i n i n e , a compound i n h i b i t o r y i n t h e c a t and a m i n o r s t i m u l u s i n t h e dog, f o l l o w e d by L - l y s i n e and L - a s p a r t i c a c i d . L-

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

10.

BOUDREAU

Neurophysiology and Stimulus Chemistry of Taste Systems 1

p r o l i n e was l a r g e l y i n a c t i v e i n t h e r a t . Few o f t h e r a t amino a c i d u n i t s d i s c h a r g e d a t h i g h r a t e s . Rat u n i t s were a l s o r e s p o n s i v e t o s u g a r s a n d s a c c h a r i n .

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Summary o f Mammalian N e u r a l

Groups

The d i f f e r e n t n e u r a l g r o u p s d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e g e n i c u l a t e a n d p e t r o s a l g a n g l i a a r e summarized w i t h respect t o species i n Table I I . The a n i m a l s s t u d i e d i n t h e g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n have been supplemented w i t h t h r e e s p e c i e s s t u d i e d only i n t h e chorda tympani: t h e h a m s t e r (10, 1 1 ) , t h e s q u i r r e l monkey (12) a n d t h e macaque ( 1 3 ) . T h e amino a c i d u n i t s i n t h e two p r i m a t e s seem t o r e p r e s e n t t h e two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f amino a c i d u n i t s seen i n t h e g a n g l i o n p r e p a r a t i o n . The s q u i r r e l monkey amino a c i d u n i t s seem q u i t e s i m i l a r t o d o g amino a c i d u n i t s even though t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s themselves c l a s s i f y them a s s a l t u n i t s . T h e macaque u n i t s o n t h e o t h e r hand d i s p l a y t h e u n u s u a l g r o u p i n g d i s c h a r g e p a t t e r n s shown b y r a t amino a c i d u n i t s . T h e human i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t a b l e b e c a u s e t h e d i f f e r e n t human s e n s a t i o n s seem t o r e p r e s e n t p s y c h o p h y s i c a l s i g n s o f e x c i t a t i o n o r i n h i b i t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t neural groups (14). On t h e b a s i s o f c h e m i c a l s a c t i v e , t h e human a c i d u n i t s seem more l i k e t h o s e o f t h e c a t a n d d o g t h a n t h e r a t o r g o a t ( 7 , 1 4 ) . T h e human s o d i u m s y s t e m seems i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t i n t h e r a t , hamster and goat ( 1 5 ) . The human c l e a r l y p o s s e s s e s a f a c i a l n e r v e amino a c i d s y s t e m s i m i l a r t o t h e c a r n i v o r e (16) a n d a p e t r o s a l s y s t e m s i m i l a r t o t h e d o g f u r a n e o l s y s t e m (14, 1 7 ) . T h e human a l s o p o s s e s s e s a g l u t a m a t e s y s t e m , y e t u n d e t e c t e d i n a n y e x p e r i m e n t a l mammal (18, 1 9 ) . Discussion The m o d u l a r t a s t e s y s t e m s summarized f o r mammals i n T a b l e I I a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h e modular t a s t e systems t h a t have been observed f o r i n v e r t e b r a t e s , such a s l o b s t e r s a n d c r a y f i s h (20, 2 1 ) . T h e most e x t e n s i v e i n v e r t e b r a t e t a s t e r e s e a r c h h a s been p e r f o r m e d on c a t e r p i l l a r s (22, 2 3 ) . I n 20 d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f c a t e r p i l l a r s , 12 d i f f e r e n t n e u r a l g r o u p s were distinguished. Viewed i n terms o f n e u r a l groups, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l animals d e t a i l e d here c o n s t i t u t e a d i v e r s e group o f organisms. T h e r a t a n d t h e h a m s t e r seem t o p o s s e s s i d e n t i c a l g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n systems. Should t h e r a t and h a m s t e r p r o v e t o b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r o d e n t s i n g e n e r a l , t h i s sodium, a c i d , amino a c i d - s u g a r t a s t e s y s t e m may b e common t o most o r a l l r o d e n t s ( o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e a r o u n d 2400 s p e c i e s ) . The r o d e n t t a s t e system i s a l s o q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e g o a t ; a l t h o u g h no amino a c i d - s u g a r s y s t e m h a s y e t b e e n d e t e c t e d i n t h e

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Table I I Summary o f Mammalian P e r i p h e r a l N e u r a l T a s t e (See T e x t )

Neural

Species

Groups Cat

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Groups

Dog

Rat

Goat

Hamster

Sq. Monk

Mac. Monk

Man

Facial X

GG S a l t (Sodium)

X Salty X

Amino A c i d Cat type

Sweet1 Acid, Cat Type

X Sour

Acid, Rat Type Nucleotide

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X (?)

Amino A c i d , Rat Type Furaneol

sweet2 PG a c i d

X

PG

X

salt

Alkaloid 1

Glutamate " umami a: b:

Also i n facial Psychophysics only

Teranishi et al.; Flavor Chemistry ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

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10.

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Neurophysiology and Stimulus Chemistry of Taste Systems

g o a t , t h e a l k a l o i d s y s t e m , s o d i u m s y s t e m and GG a c i d system of the goat are l i k e those of the r a t . Perhaps t h e t a s t e s y s t e m s o f many mammals c a p a b l e o f l i v i n g on p l a n t foods c o n t a i n b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s . The c a t and t h e dog, on t h e o t h e r hand, p o s s e s s t a s t e s y s t e m s t h a t h a v e l i t t l e i n common w i t h r o d e n t s and g o a t s . Not o n l y do t h e y h a v e no s o d i u m s y s t e m , b u t t h e i r a c i d and amino a c i d s y s t e m s a r e a l s o m a r k e d l y distinct. A l t h o u g h t h e c a t and t h e dog h a v e two s y s t e m s , t h e a c i d and amino a c i d s y s t e m s , i n common, both a l s o possess a t a s t e system which the o t h e r does not: t h e c a t a n u c l e o t i d e s y s t e m and dog a f u r a n e o l system. The p r i m a t e s h a v e b e e n i n a d e q u a t e l y s t u d i e d , b u t t h o s e two w i t h a d e q u a t e s i n g l e u n i t d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r i m a t e t a s t e s y s t e m s i s no simple matter. I t i s n o t o b v i o u s f o r i n s t a n c e , why the s q u i r r e l monkey may h a v e an amino a c i d s y s t e m l i k e a c a r n i v o r e and t h e macaque one l i k e a r o d e n t . The human t a s t e s y s t e m f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e s m a t t e r s s i n c e man can b e s t be v i e w e d as a c o m p o s i t e , h a v i n g a s o d i u m s y s t e m l i k e t h e r a t and g o a t , c a r n i v o r e a c i d and amino a c i d s y s t e m s , a f u r a n e o l s y s t e m l i k e t h e dog and a g l u t a m a t e s y s t e m u n l i k e any o t h e r mammal s t u d i e d ( 1 4 ) . The compounds a c t i v e on b o t h v e r t e b r a t e and i n v e r t e b r a t e t a s t e s y s t e m s c o n s t i t u t e a s e l e c t g r o u p o f low m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t compounds. The compounds i n c l u d e organic acids, s a l t s , n u c l e o t i d e s , amino a c i d s and a v a r i e t y o f s e c o n d a r y compounds, n o t a b l y a l k a l o i d s b u t a l s o o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g h e r e f u r a n e o l and e t h y l and methyl m a l t o l . J u s t why c e r t a i n o f t h e s e compounds a r e a c t i v e on t a s t e s y s t e m s i s o f t e n a moot p o i n t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f none o f t h e a c i d s y s t e m s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s o b v i o u s f r o m an e c o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , n o r i s i t a p p a r e n t why c e r t a i n a c i d s a r e s o p o t e n t . It i s also n o t c l e a r why t h e two amino a c i d s y s t e m s a r e so d i s t i n c t , n o r why p r o l i n e and c y s t e i n e s h o u l d assume such a l a r g e r o l e i n the c a r n i v o r e t a s t e system. The t a s t e s y s t e m s w h i c h a r e e c o l o g i c a l l y o b v i o u s , however, a r e t h e GG s o d i u m s y s t e m and t h e dog f u r a n e o l system. The s o d i u m s y s t e m i s n o t p r e s e n t i n c a r n i v o r e s b u t i s p r e s e n t i n h e r b i v o r e s and o m n i v o r e s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s s y s t e m i n t h e r a t and g o a t c a n n o t be overemphasized s i n c e h a l f of the t a s t e neurons i n the g e n i c u l a t e g a n g l i o n a r e devoted t o sodium s e n s i n g . The p r e s e n c e o f a sodium system i n a n i m a l s t h a t may s u b s i s t e n t i r e l y on p l a n t s u b s t a n c e s i s q u i t e o b v i o u s s i n c e Na i s o f t e n p r e s e n t i n m i n u s c u l e q u a n t i t i e s i n most p l a n t s (24). B o t h t h e r a t and g o a t e x h i b i t a s a l t h u n g e r and can w i t h s a l i n e s o l u t i o n s r e g u l a t e t h e i r sodium i n t a k e t o s u p p l y t h e i r sodium need. A l t h o u g h t h e dog (and r e l a t e d c a n i n e s ) may s u b s i s t f o r f a i r l y l o n g p e r i o d s o f

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time on f r u i t o r o t h e r p l a n t s u b s t a n c e s , i t cannot r e g u l a t e i t s sodium i n t a k e by t a s t e ( 2 5 ) . The d o g u n i t s were l a b e l e d f u r a n e o l u n i t s b e c a u s e t h i s compound i s f o u n d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t y i n many f r u i t s (26). B e s i d e s b e i n g i n t e n s e l y sweet, t h i s compound a l s o h a s a f r a g r a n t o d o r a n d i s a c h a r a c t e r i m p a c t compound f o r many f r u i t s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s dog f u r a n e o l t a s t e system i s s p e c i f i c f o r f r u i t and i s l i n k e d w i t h the seed d i s p e r s i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e dog. The p r e s e n c e of t h i s t a s t e system and i t s absence i s r e a d i l y d e t e c t a b l e i n t h e n a t u r a l e a t i n g b e h a v i o r o f c a n i n e s and felids. I n a n a t u r a l environment canines w i l l s u p p l e ­ ment t h e i r s m a l l a n i m a l d i e t w i t h f r u i t o f t h e s e a s o n , unlike felids. Nucleotide responsive units a r e r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n t a s t e systems. The o n l y o t h e r v e r t e ­ b r a t e n u c l e o t i d e t a s t e system t h a t h a s been d e s c r i b e d i s i n t h e p u f f e r f i s h (27). This f i s h f a c i a l nerve t a s t e system, l i k e t h a t i n t h e c a t , a l s o responded t o a wide v a r i e t y o f n u c l e o t i d e s and t o i n o r g a n i c phosphate compounds. I n i n v e r t e b r a t e s , n u c l e o t i d e t a s t e systems h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d f o r b l o o d s u c k i n g a n i m a l s where t h e y a r e common ( 2 8 ) .

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