Products can profoundly
CHANGE OUR BEHAVIORS.
100’s of millions of users…
…and 100’s of millions of dollars.
? NS T AT
A BEHAVIOR DONE WITH
LITTLE OR NO
Habits can be used for good.
The information for what to do next is within the trigger.
The information for what to do next is informed
through an association in the user’s memory.
Negative emotions are POWERFUL INTERNAL TRIGGERS.
lonesome indecisive powerless tense dissatisfied confused inferior fatigued discouraged fear of loss bored lost
People who are DEPRESSED CHECK EMAIL MORE OFTEN. Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012
When we feel LONELY we use
When we feel UNSURE we use
When we are BORED we use
Do you know your customer’s INTERNAL TRIGGER?
What triggers make so habit-forming?
solves the pain of losing the moment.
But is also a social network.
Urge to preserve Bored
SIMPLEST BEHAVIOR in anticipation of a reward.
According to BJ Fogg, for any behavior to occur, we need MOTIVATION, ABILITY, and a TRIGGER
“THE ENERGY FOR ACTION”
THERE ARE SIX FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE MOTIVATION.
Avoiding Rejection Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
the capacity to do a particular action
Level of motivation and ability determines if action will occur
ABIL Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
Source: Olds and Milner, 1945
It all starts with the
NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS studied by Olds & Milner.
The nucleus accumbens
is activated when
Were Olds & Milner stimulating pleasure? Not exactly.
They were stimulating the
STRESS OF DESIRE.
Our reward system activates
Source: Knutson et al 2001
… and calms when
we get what we want.
Source: Knutson et al 2001
That’s the ITCH we seek to SCRATCH.
There is a way to supercharge the stress of desire.
THE UNKNOWN IS FASCINATING.
Variability causes us to focus and engage
…and increases behavior.
The nucleus accumbens is stimulated by variability.
3 types of VARIABLE REWARDS
Habit-forming tech uses 1 OR MORE
SEARCH FOR SOCIAL REWARDS TRIBE
We Like social rewards.
SEARCH FOR RESOURCES HUNT
Stems from the hunt for food and resources
Hunt for variable material rewards
for variable information
SEARCH FOR SELF-ACHIEVEMENT SELF
Leveling-up reflects MASTERY and COMPETENCY.
Inbox or task management reflects
CONSISTENCY and COMPLETION.
Variable rewards are not a free pass.
Your product still must address the itch.
Build variable rewards that scratch the users itch, but leave them wanting more.
Users “invest” for future benefits. Money
Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in
INVESTMENTS LOAD THE NEXT TRIGGER OF THE HOOK.
Each new message posted on
is an open invitation for an external trigger to be returned.
INVESTMENTS STORE VALUE,
improving the product with use.
Each pass through the Hook helps
SHAPE USER PREFERENCES AND ATTITUDES.
The HOOK Canvas
1. What internal trigger is the product addressing? 2. What external trigger gets the user to the product?
4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more?
5. What “bit of work” is done to increase the likelihood of returning?
3. What is the simplest behavior in anticipation of reward?
THE MORALITY OF MANIPULATION
habit-forming products is a form of manipulation.
Users take our technologies to bed.
They check our devices before saying “good morning” to loved ones.
Quite possibly, the
- Ian Bogost
What RESPONSIBILITY do we have when changing user behavior?
THE WORLD IS FULL OF PROBLEMS TO FIX.
Help others find meaning. Engage them in something important.
We can DESIGN
CHANGE you want to see in THE WORLD.
Take the survey. Get the slides.