Hooked


Hooked7e5fde80f6de94841868-33dd1d7fbba7776786a61a9441a49451.r81.cf5.rackcdn.com/...

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Hooked
 
 @nireyal

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Products can profoundly 


CHANGE OUR BEHAVIORS.

100’s of millions of users…

…and 100’s of millions of dollars.

? NS T AT

P

R E

hab·it

A BEHAVIOR DONE WITH

LITTLE OR NO 
 CONSCIOUS THOUGHT

Habits can be used for good.

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h A"Hook"has"4"parts:"

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EXTERNAL TRIGGERS


The information for what to do next is within the trigger.

Billboards

SO DA

INTERNAL TRIGGERS


The information for what to do next is informed 
 through an association in the user’s memory.

Negative emotions are POWERFUL INTERNAL TRIGGERS.

lonesome indecisive powerless tense dissatisfied confused inferior fatigued discouraged fear of loss bored lost

People who are DEPRESSED CHECK EMAIL MORE OFTEN. Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012

When we feel LONELY we use

When we feel UNSURE we use

When we are BORED we use

Do you know your customer’s INTERNAL TRIGGER?

What triggers make so habit-forming?

external triggers

solves the pain of losing the moment.

But is also a social network.

Lonely

Stressed Curious

Urge to preserve Bored

FOMO

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The

SIMPLEST BEHAVIOR in anticipation of a reward.

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Search

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According to BJ Fogg, for any behavior to occur, we need MOTIVATION, ABILITY, and a TRIGGER

b=m+a+t

mo·ti·va·tion

“THE ENERGY FOR ACTION”

-Edward Deci

THERE ARE SIX FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE MOTIVATION.

Seeking Pleasure
 Avoiding Pain
 Seeking Hope
 Avoiding Fear
 Seeking Acceptance
 Avoiding Rejection Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University

ABILITY

the capacity to do a particular action

Time%

$ Money%

Physical%effort% %

Six$factors$can$increase$or$decrease$ability. Brain%cycles%

Social%deviance%

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MOTIVATION

Level of motivation and ability determines if action will occur

TRIGGER

SUCCEEDS

MOTIVATION

TRIGGER

FAILS ABILITY

ABIL Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University

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Source: Olds and Milner, 1945

It all starts with the

NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS studied by Olds & Milner.

The nucleus accumbens 
 is activated when 
 we crave.

Were Olds & Milner stimulating pleasure? Not exactly.

They were stimulating the 
 STRESS OF DESIRE.

Our reward system activates 
 with anticipation

Source: Knutson et al 2001

… and calms when 
 we get what we want.

Source: Knutson et al 2001

That’s the ITCH we seek to SCRATCH.

There is a way to supercharge the stress of desire.

THE UNKNOWN IS FASCINATING.

Variability causes us to focus and engage

…and increases behavior.

The nucleus accumbens is stimulated by variability.

3 types of VARIABLE REWARDS

TRIBE

HUNT

SELF

Habit-forming tech uses 1 OR MORE

SEARCH FOR SOCIAL REWARDS TRIBE

empathetic joy

partnership

competition

We Like social rewards.

SEARCH FOR RESOURCES HUNT

Stems from the hunt for food and resources

Hunt for variable material rewards

Hunt 
 for variable information 
 rewards.

SEARCH FOR SELF-ACHIEVEMENT SELF

Leveling-up reflects MASTERY and COMPETENCY.

Inbox or task management reflects 


CONSISTENCY and COMPLETION.

WARNING

Variable rewards are not a free pass. 
 Your product still must address the itch.

Build variable rewards that scratch the users itch, but leave them wanting more.

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Users “invest” for future benefits. Money

Social Capital

Personal Data

Time

Emotional Commitment

Effort

Investments increase the likelihood of the next pass through the Hook in 


TWO
 ways.

INVESTMENTS LOAD THE NEXT TRIGGER OF THE HOOK.

1.

Each new message posted on

is an open invitation for an external trigger to be returned.

2.

INVESTMENTS STORE VALUE, 
 improving the product with use.

CONTENT

DATA

FOLLOWERS

REPUTATION

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The$HOOK$is$an$experience$designed$to$ connect$the$user’s$problem$to$your$solu7on.$

Each pass through the Hook helps 
 SHAPE USER PREFERENCES AND ATTITUDES.

The HOOK Canvas

1. What internal trigger is the product addressing? 2. What external trigger gets the user to the product?

4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more?

5. What “bit of work” is done to increase the likelihood of returning?

3. What is the simplest behavior in anticipation of reward?

THE MORALITY OF MANIPULATION

Designing 
 habit-forming products is a form of manipulation.

Users take our technologies to bed.

They check our devices before saying “good morning” to loved ones.

Quite possibly, the 


“CIGARETTE OF 
 THIS CENTURY.”
 - Ian Bogost

What RESPONSIBILITY do we have when changing user behavior?

THE WORLD IS FULL OF PROBLEMS TO FIX.

Help others find meaning. Engage them in something important.

We can DESIGN
 HEALTHY HABITS

Photo: 7CupsOfTea.com

Build the

CHANGE you want to see in THE WORLD.

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Take the survey. Get the slides.

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www.OpinionTo.Us

@nireyal www.NirAndFar.com