Music, Music Therapy and Child Development


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It’s author has drawn heavily on research that describe the effect of music, from the point of view of psychology, neuropsychology, education, neuropedagogy and medecine; this research helps provide an understanding of the potential of the alliance between music and children. Guylaine Vaillancourt is a music therapist and a nurse. She also assume different responsabilities in the Assocation québécoise de musicothérapie.

ISBN 978-2-89619-670-8 ISBN 978-2-89619-671-5

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Francine Ferland Le monde des jouets et des jeux

This book is intended to make parents, educators and caregivers aware of how music and music therapy can benefit children. It deals with sound and musical awareness, while focussing on the place of music in the overall development of the human being, as well as music therapy, a creative approach that is acessible to children, regardless of their age, physical and intellectual condition, and cultural heritage.

Guylaine Vaillancourt

Éditions du CHU Sainte-Justine

M

usic is always been a part of life. It mirrors what we are and what we are experiencing in the present. The rhythm, melody, harmony, timber, tempo, nuance and intensity bring images to mind and provoke movement. Music is also a langage that we possess without ever having studied it. This language is accessible to all and helps us express ourselves and communicate.

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Music, Music Therapy and Child Development

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Music, Music Therapy and Child Development Translation of

Musique, musicothérapie et développement de l’enfant by Sheryl Curtis

Guylaine Vaillancourt

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Cover : Geneviève Côté Graphic Design : Nicole Tétreault Circulation and distribution in Québec : Prologue inc. in France : CEDIF (diffusion) – Daudin (distribution) in Belgium and in Luxembourg : SDL Caravelle in Switzerland : Servidis S.A. Éditions du CHU Sainte-Justine 3175 Côte-Sainte-Catherine Montreal (Québec) H3T 1C5 Telephone : (514) 345-4671 Fax : (514) 345-4631 www.editions-chu-sainte-justine.org ©

Éditions du CHU Sainte-Justine 2013 All rights reserved ISBN 978-2-89619-670-8 (pdf) ISBN 978-2-89619-671-5 (ePub) Dépôt légal : Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2013 Library and Archives Canada, 2013

Member of Association nationale des éditeurs de livres

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Children and music live in the same universe, the world of play, the beautiful, the sensitive, creativity and freedom.

To my daughter Maude who, since birth, has taught me the beauty of life.

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Table

of

Contents

Acknowledgements....................................................... 11 Introduction.................................................................13 Part i • Music as Education..........................................15 What is music?................................................................17 Why use music with children?.......................................18 The music we listen to....................................................19 The hearing mechanism.............................................19 Hearing and the fetus.................................................20 Hearing and the infant...............................................21 The world of sound.....................................................22 Musical choices...........................................................24 The music we play...........................................................30 Playing an instrument............................................... 31 The music we sing...........................................................33 Creativity.........................................................................34 Communication..............................................................35 The quality of the sound environment.........................40 The effects of music........................................................42 Physical effects............................................................42 Emotional effects........................................................49 Cognitive effects..........................................................54 Social effects...............................................................59

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Music as activity, education and therapy......................60 Activity.......................................................................60 Education...................................................................60 Therapy......................................................................61 Part ii • Music as Therapy.............................................63 Definition of music therapy...........................................66 False ideas about music therapy.....................................68 The work of the music therapist....................................71 The music therapist must:.........................................71 Treatment in music therapy...........................................72 Initial evaluation........................................................72 Individual or group therapy...........................................75 Final periodic report...................................................76 Methods in music therapy.............................................76 Instrumental improvisation.......................................78 Vocal improvisation...................................................84 Singing........................................................................85 Listening.....................................................................86 Stories, legends, myths...............................................88 Music and movement.................................................89 Music and art.............................................................90 Involving the family....................................................91 Special needs...................................................................92 Multidisciplinary work...............................................92 Assault, negligence, and psychological, physical and sexual violence......................................96 Developmental disability...............................................98 Extrait de la publication

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Table of Contents

9

Interest......................................................................100 Interaction................................................................100 Communication....................................................... 101 Hearing impairment.....................................................104 Visual impairment........................................................106 Dysphasia...................................................................... 110 Physical disabilities....................................................... 114 Neonatology.................................................................. 118 Medical problems......................................................... 121 Mental health: anorexia, substance abuse, behavioural problems.................................................125 Palliative care................................................................ 137 Autism...........................................................................142 Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity............................................................... 149 Creative arts therapies.................................................. 153 Appendix i...................................................................... 157 Components of music...................................................157 Rhythm.....................................................................157 Melody......................................................................157 Tempo.......................................................................157 Harmony..................................................................158 Dynamics.................................................................158 Register.....................................................................158 Music instruments....................................................159 Voice.........................................................................160 Styles, periods...........................................................160 Extrait de la publication

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Discography.................................................................. 163 Medieval music........................................................ 163 Renaissance music....................................................164 Baroque music..........................................................164 Classical ................................................................... 165 Romanticism............................................................ 165 Impressionism ..........................................................166 Modern/Contemporary............................................166 Miscellaneous recordings..........................................166 Appendix ii..................................................................... 169 Music therapist training............................................... 169 Americas................................................................... 169 Appendix iii.................................................................... 171 Creative Arts Therapies................................................ 171 Art therapy............................................................... 171 Dance/movement therapy........................................ 172 Tools of dance movement therapy............................ 173 Drama therapy......................................................... 175 Appendix iv....................................................................177 Decibel table..................................................................177 Bibliography................................................................. 179 R eferences in English................................................. 183 R esources...................................................................... 185 Web sites.................................................................... 185 Canada..................................................................... 185 International............................................................ 185 Extrait de la publication

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Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my parents, Claire and Guy, who took me to my first piano lesson when I was six years old. That’s when I took my first step into the wonderful world of music, which has been part of my daily life ever since. I also extend my thanks to music therapists here and abroad who have fed my passion for music and the human being. In particular, I thank Carolyn Kenny and Josée Préfontaine, who have been great inspirations for my work in music therapy, as well as Sister Marcelle Corneille, a music educator ahead of her time who brought university training in music therapy to Quebec. Thanks also to music therapists Eddy Auger, Marianne Bargiel, Chrystine Bouchard, Linda Labbé, Nathalie Leduc and Despina Papayiannis; to Joanabbey Sack, a dance and movement therapist; to Jean-Paul DesPins, neuropedagogue in music; as well as to Johanne Savard, a mother. They all provided extremely valuable documents for me. Furthermore, I would also like to thank Luc Bégin, of Éditions de l’Hôpital Sainte-Justine, and Marie-Claude Béliveau, both of whom supported me as I wrote this book. I would like to thank Sheryl Curtis who translated my book.

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Finally, I extend my thanks to Concordia University for the generous research grant they gave me to translate this book from French into English.

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Introduction

This book is intended to make parents, educators and care-givers aware of how music and music therapy can benefit children. Part I deals with sound and musical awareness, while focussing on the place of music in the overall development of the human being. Part II covers music therapy, a creative approach that is accessible to children, regardless of their age, physical and intellectual condition, and cultural heritage. In this work, we will first discuss music and music therapy in general, without being exhaustive. There are other works that already do this, particularly with respect to musical awareness and the use of music therapy with children suffering from physical, psychological, intellectual or social diverse abilities. Nevertheless, readers will find enough indications and explanations in this book to provide a general knowledge in this field. We have drawn heavily on research that describes the effects of music, from the point of view of psychology, neuropsychology, education, neuropedagogy and medicine; this research helps provide an understanding of the potential of the alliance between music and children. Extrait de la publication

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In short, we want to make music accessible to all, to allow it to hold the position it deserves in the life of the child, in terms of both education and therapy!

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Part

i

Music as Education

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What is music? Music can be defined as “the art of combining vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion”. In all cultures and since the beginning of time, music has been a part of life. It mirrors what we are and what we are experiencing in the present. It follows our development, as in the case of a child who grows. Music is also a language that we possess without ever having studied it. This language is accessible to all and helps us express ourselves and communicate. Music is composed of several elements that stir up emotions, bring images to mind and provoke movement. These elements are: rhythm, melody, harmony, timber, tempo, nuances, intensity… (see Appendix I, page 157). Each of these elements affects the child in a different manner, in keeping with his/her stage of development. Music is a language that the child can grasp without any prior knowledge since it is the child who gives it meaning. According to Alvin, the music that we listen to provides a sense of orderliness, time and continuity1. It is also interesting to consider certain expressions of spoken language that pertain to music. For example, 1. A lvin, J. Music Therapy. London: Hutchinson, 1975, 181 p.

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people say that they are in tune, that something sounds wrong, people speak of dissonance, resonance, harmony, we try to be on the same wavelength as someone else, we ask people to change their tune… all words and expressions that translate the link between music and the human being. When the very young child hears a piece of music, it captures his/her attention on a sensory level. A short while later during the course of his/her development, the child uses his/her sensory and emotional memory to recognize the instrument, the melody or the rhythm. When the child’s intellectual development allows for this, words are applied over the melody, bringing an image, memory, emotion, event or individual to mind. Finally, the child sings the song in his/her mind, then out loud and, in the case of a rhythmic song, he/she beats time. The entire process, which is almost instantaneous in the adult, takes several years to take shape in the case of the child, from birth to the preschool years. The world of music is as vast as the child’s world. The possibilities for expression and creativity through music are virtually limitless. Let us now look at how and why music is so important for the development of the child.

Why use music with children? The child is a musical, creative being. Children are also developing beings. They have their own music, which they express with their own rhythm, with their natural

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It’s author has drawn heavily on research that describe the effect of music, from the point of view of psychology, neuropsychology, education, neuropedagogy and medecine; this research helps provide an understanding of the potential of the alliance between music and children. Guylaine Vaillancourt is a music therapist and a nurse. She also assume different responsabilities in the Assocation québécoise de musicothérapie.

ISBN 978-2-89619-670-8 ISBN 978-2-89619-671-5

Extrait de la publication

Music, music therapy_couv.indd 1

Francine Ferland Le monde des jouets et des jeux

This book is intended to make parents, educators and caregivers aware of how music and music therapy can benefit children. It deals with sound and musical awareness, while focussing on the place of music in the overall development of the human being, as well as music therapy, a creative approach that is accessible to children, regardless of their age, physical and intellectual condition, and cultural heritage.

Guylaine Vaillancourt

Éditions du CHU Sainte-Justine

M

usic is always been a part of life. It mirrors what we are and what we are experiencing in the present. The rhythm, melody, harmony, timber, tempo, nuance and intensity bring images to mind and provoke movement. Music is also a langage that we possess without ever having studied it. This language is accessible to all and helps us express ourselves and communicate.

Music, Music Therapy and Child Development

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