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ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Electronics for Scientists. Howard V. Malmstadt, G. G. Enke, E. C. Toren. Jr.. xi + 619 pages. W. A. Benjamin. Inc.. 21βδ Broadway, New York Sô. X. V. 1962. $10.75. Reviewed by Lynne L. Merritt, Jr., Professor of Chemistry and Associate Dean of Faculties, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana This interesting and very useful book consists of nine chapters entitled Electrical Measurements, Power Supplies, Amplification by Vacuum Tubes and Transistors, Amplifier Circuits, Oscillators, Comparison Measurements, Servo Systems, Operational Amplifiers for Measurement and Control, and Electrical Switching and Timing and Digital Counting Systems. There are three supplements comprising 111 pages; An Integrated System of instruments, Test Equipment and Rapid-Connect Parts, D.C. Circtiits, and Electrical Signals and lieactive Circuits, and four appendixes covering parameters of transistors, vacuum-tube characteristics, resistor values and a power-transformer color code. There is a good index of 19 pages. The book is designed for a laboratory-oriented course of one semester's duration with about 15 half days of laboratory work and an equal amount of study time. The laboratory experiments are centered around solderions const ruction kits which use spring clips to make connections if parts to 1 / s -inch posts in a point-to-point construction technique, all described in the first supplement. The necessary equipment is commercially available. Each of the nine main chapters of the book is followed t y a list of references, a set of problems with answers, and several experiments based upon the equipment kits described in the first supplement. The second supplement consists of a brief review of simple d.c. circuits such as one might study in an elementary physics course while the third supplement is a somewhat longer review of a.c. circuits. This book is well written and could be read with profit by any scientist who has had an elementary course in physics. Although one should carry out the laboratory exercises in order to gain the maximum benefit from the book, it is not necessary to do so. The book is certainly important enough that it should be required reading for any baccalaureate or doctoral candidate or practicing scientist, unless he has otherwise acquired a good knowledge of electronics. A course based upon

NEW this book would not replace a course in instrumental methods of analysis but really should be a prerequisite to such a course. In other words, it seems to this reviewer that electronic instruments are so widely used and are such powerful tools in all fields of science that a minimum of two courses is necessary; the first should be a course in electronics for which this book is a most excellent text and the second should be a course in instrumental analysis covering the physical and chemical principles involved and the instrumentation which has been developed for such methods of measurement. This reviewer can only shout his praises for the present book. It is well printed and bound but, more important, it is well written, up-to-date, and remarkably free from errors. Modern transistorized circuits are included and described as well as circuitusing operational amplifiers. According to the reverse side of the title page, the last chapter of the manuscript was received on July 25, 1962, and the volume was published on September 30, 1962. Almost every page contains at least one useful diagram or drawing. The authors and publishers all deserve the thanks of every scientist or would-be scientist. Infrared



Koju Nakanishi. ix + 283 pages. Ή olden-Day, Inc., 728 Montgomery St.. San Francisco 11. Calif. 1962. $8. Reviewed Laboratory, aca, Ν. Υ.

by W. D. Cooke, Baker Cornell University, Ith­

The text on infrared spectroscopy by Professor Nakanishi is based on an entirely different idea than other books covering the field. Its purpose is to convey to the beginner some of the ex­ tensive experience of the author by dis­ cussing the interpretation of a large number of infrared spectra. The first seventy pages contain a large number of concise correlation tables for the position of characteristic bands. The charts contain more in­ formation than is usually available since they give literature references for further study, intensities when avail­ able, and what is more important, pre­ sent typical spectra for most of the functional groups discussed. The remainder of the book is con­ cerned with eighty-five problems. Gen­ erally, the elemental formula is pre­

BOOKS sented along with the infrared spectrum of the compound and the student is left to elucidate as much as he can concern­ ing the structure. The real value of the book however lies in the one-hun­ dred pages in which the answers to the problems are presented. The spectra are interpreted and most of the important bands are identified. The beginning student will find most of the problems somewhat difficult but he should learn a great deal by studying the answers to the problem. The reviewer believes that the book is an excellent teaching device and should give the student who is willing to spend the time, a real insight into the interpretation of infrared spectra. In a few weeks one can gain informa­ tion that would be equivalent to years of experience in infrared work. Dunnschicht-Chromatographie. Kurt Randerath. xii + 2^3 pages. Verlag Chemie, G.m.b.H.. Weinheim/ Bergstr., Germany. 1962. DM 22. Reviewed by Raymond D. Bennett, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland The need for a book on thin-layer chromatography will be recognized by most workers in the field, especially those who are just beginning to use this recently developed technique. The present volume meets this need admirably in most respects. The book is essentially a review in detail of the literature up to July 1962, although some unpublished material is included. The first section deals with general techniques, including descriptions of apparatus for preparing chromatoplates, characteristics of various ad­ sorbents and directions for their use in thin-layer chromatography, and meth­ ods for development, location of zones, quantitative analysis, and documenta­ tion. The detailed treatment presented here will make consultation of the original literature unnecessary for most purposes. Since very little has been published on the theoretical basis of thin-layer chromatography and good discussions of general chromatographic theory are available elsewhere, the author has devoted a minimum of space to these aspects. For newcomers to the field, this section is the best avail­ able introduction at the present time. The second and major part of the book is concerned with specific appli­ cations of thin-layer chromatography and is subdivided into fifteen categories, including alkaloids, amino acids, ster­ oids, lipids, and nucleotides. Many VOL 35, NO. 9, AUGUST 1963


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solid, m gas & J L liquid 4 sampling systems You can greatly extend t h e usefulness of your gas e h r o m a t o g r a p h w i t h a small i n v e s t m e n t in p e r f o r m a n c e - p r o v e d F & M sampling accessories. A l t h o u g h designed especially for use w i t h F & M gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h s , these sampling s y s t e m s are a d a p t a b l e to m o s t other t y p e s of i n s t r u m e n t s . . . to solve almost a n y sampling problem: GASES—The F & M Gas S a m p l i n g Valve introduces a c c u r a t e , reproducible gas samples u n d e r leak-free conditions a t t e m p e r a t u r e s up to 100°C a n d pressures to 100 psig. I t is m a n u f a c ­ tured entirely of stainless steel, w i t h sample loop capacities of 0.5 t o 25.0 cc. SOLIDS—The F & M Solid Sample Injector conveniently introduces solids or h a r d - t o - h a n d l e liquids into t h e injec­ tion p o r t of a gas e h r o m a t o g r a p h , using s t a n d a r d melting point capillaries. N o t only does it p e r m i t t h e direct analysis of a n y solid t h a t vaporizes on heating, it is also useful for t h e s t u d y of p o l y m e r d e g r a d a t i o n a n d chemical reactions. LIQUIDS — F o r t h e precise a n d repro­ ducible sampling of liquids, F & M carries a full line of H a m i l t o n micro­ liter a n d milliliter syringes, including those w i t h C h a n e y a d a p t o r s and gast i g h t models. For complete information on sam­ pling s y s t e m s , write for t h e F & M C o l u m n s and Accessories Catalog. F & M Scientific Corporation, S t a r r R o a d a n d R o u t e 4 1 , Avondale, Penn­ sylvania, 215-COlony 8-2281.





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illustrations of chromatograms and tables of R F values from the original literature are reproduced in this section, together with considerable detail on procedures. All compounds mentioned in t h e text are listed in the subject index, which therefore provides a very convenient reference source. On t h e other hand, coverage of the literature u p to J u l y 1962 is not exhaustive, and a great deal of material has appeared since t h a t time. T h e a u t h o r has placed emphasis on work which is described in detail in the literature, b u t he has not a t t e m p t e d to m a k e critical judgments in most cases. This limitation is probably necessary in a book by a single a u t h o r which covers a wide, rapidly developing field and should be. kept in mind by readers. Thin-layer chromatography is still largely practiced on an empirical basis, and methods reported in the literature m a y be far from ideal. I n summary, this book is excellent as a laboratory manual and very useful as a reference source. However, potential purchasers should not expect to find theoretical or critical t r e a t m e n t s of the subject.

Advances in Clinical Chemistry. Vol. 5 . H. Sobotka and C. P. Stewart, Editors, xiv + 329 pages. Aca­ demic Press, Inc., Ill Fifth Ave., New York 3, Ν. Υ. 1963. ' $12. Reviewed by Paul L. Kirk, Univer­ sity of California, Berkeley, Calif. This volume, like its predecessors in this significant series, maintains t h e already established informational value, clarity, and thiroughness of t h e series. I t deviates to a degree in minimizing more t h a n in earlier volumes the tech­ nical aspects of clinical biochemistry and p u t s even greater emphasis on the biochemical and medical significance of the subjects covered. I n fact, some subjects, e.g., peptides in h u m a n urine, and haptoglobins, have limited dem­ onstrated significance as yet in medi­ cal practice, b u t carry i m p o r t a n t bio­ chemical implications t h a t m a y be ex­ pected to show increasing value in diag­ nostic and prognostic procedures. Above all, their discussion should lead to greater understanding of the in­ creasingly complex area of biochemical mechanisms. T h u s , the volume is per­ haps of greater value for biochemical research than for direct medical labora­ tory use. I n the words of the editors "Clinical chemistry . . . should be viewed as a forum where clinician and chemist meet for the exchange of ideas and experiences."

T h e subjects treated in this volume are as follows: Inherited Metabolic Disorders; Galactosemia; T h e M a l ­ absorption Syndrome, with Special Reference to t h e Effects of W h e a t Gluten; Peptides in H u m a n U r i n e ; Haptoglobins; Microbiological Assay M e t h o d s for Vitamins; and D e h y d r o ­ genases. T h e article on galactosemia constitutes an extension of broader coverage of the i m p o r t a n t area of in­ born errors of metabolism, exemplified in Volume 4 in the article on mellituria. Likewise the current article on peptiduria is an extension of the material of Volume 4 on aminoaciduria. I t is inevitable t h a t a reviewer will find greater interest in some t h a n in other subjects covered in a volume such as this. However, there is no single article which is not replete with ideas and hints for further research, and with compiled information of the greatest value to the biochemist as well as to the clinical analyst. T h e volume definitely is an asset on the shelves of either. I t s format, printing, and binding are con­ sistent with the uniformly high stand­ ards of the publishers.

ASTM Standards on Glass and Glass P r o d u c t s - C - 1 4 . 174 + viii pages. American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadel­ phia 3, Pa. $4; to ASTM members, S3.20. S t a n d a r d tests and tentatives in­ cluded in this compilation cover glass and glass containers, glass block and insulation, glass insulators, glass fiber material, glass spheres for use in paints, electrical tests, and spectrochemical analysis. New additions include standards on glass fiber materials. Also, a new sec­ tion on spectrochemical analysis in­ cludes methods for t h e analysis of ce­ ramics and other nonmetallic materials by the powder-d.c. arc technique; the analysis of glass for alkali elements by flame photometry, and the analysis of glass for alkaline earth elements by t h e flame photometer technique.

Quantitative Organic Analysis v i a Functional Groups. Third Edition. Sidney Siggia. xii + 697 pages. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 440 Park Ave., South, New York 16, Ν. Υ. 1963. $19. This edition reflects the rapid growth in organic functional group determina­ tions by chemical means over the past ten years. I n addition to new m e t h -

MASTERED ods, the book contains more extensive discussions than earlier editions. For example, methods for determining trace quantities of each functional group are included. The chemistry involved in the methods is discussed including the historical development. Also, merits and limitations of analytical approaches are considered. All the described methods have been used in the laboratory of the author. They were chosen for their general applicability, simplicity, accuracy, and precision. In addition to the newer methods, a chapter on the use of reaction rates to chemically analyze mixtures of com­ pounds containing the same functional groups has been included.


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Official, Standardised and Recom­ mended Methods of Analysis. S. MOLECULES OF lELEHSED CCUSCtWPUSSEO. Π Ε « ™ « «ESSUIE

C. Jolly, compiler and editor, xx + 577 -pages. W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd., Cambridge, England. 1963. £ β.6s. Od. The methods in this book have been subjected to collaborative investiga­ tions and are the recommended meth­ ods of the Analytical Methods Com­ mittee of the Society for Analytical Chemists in Great 3ritain. Part I, 339 pages, gives procedures related to the following materials: metallic im­ purities in organic matter, vitamins, essential oils, milk products, meat ex­ tracts, oils and fats, soaps, and various industrial effluents. There are also sec­ tions on determinations of fluorine in food, crude fibre in national flour, pesti­ cide residues, and the analysis of vari­ ous drugs. Part 2, composed of 44 sections, 234 pages, contains bibliographies covering a wide variety of materials. These bibliographies have been prepared by specialists and include publications in French, German, and other languages for which English translations are available as well as British and Ameri-

Residue Reviews. Vol. 2 . Francis A. Gunther, editor. 166 pages. Aca­ demic Press, Inc., Ill Fifth Ave., New York S, Ν. Υ. 1.963. $6.50. Volume 1, reviewed in Feb., page 115 A conlains nine general and specific reviews. Volume 2 sontains five re­ views in English and one in French. All reviews include summaries in Ger­ man and French, or Einglish in the one case. Four of these reviews are pri­ marily concerned with analytical meth­ ods for determining pesticide residues

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in plants. They are: Nematocide residues in plants by A. L. Taylor; The determination of organophosphate pesticides and their residues by paper chromatography by M. E. Getz; La détermination de résidus d'insecticides et de fongicides par la méthode polarographique by P. H. Martens and P. Nangniot; and The utilization of infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometric procedures for assay of pesticide residues by R. C. Blinn and F. A. Gunther. The reviews on polarographic procedures and spectrophotometric methods both include extensive bibliographies.

Determination of Trace Elements, With Special Reference to Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs. Society for Analytical Chemistry, vii + 39 pages. W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd., 3 and 4 Petty Cury, Cambridge, England. 1963. 21s. This volume has been prepared by The Trace Elements in Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Sub-Committee of The Society for Analytical Chemistry. After discussing general sampling and preparation of the sample, methods are given for determination of the following elements: boron, calcium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The last section describes oxine extraction and chromatographic separation of trace metals.

The Radiochemical Manual. Part 2: Radioactive Chemicals. 78 pages. The Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, Buckinghamshire. 1963. Paperbound. 26s. if end point determinations must be quick

read 'em in seconds the Brookfield way... Brookfield viscometers, both portable and process-mounted, give you precise viscosity readings in seconds. They give you the kind of speed, in fact, that's essential for reactions where end points arrive in minutes instead of hours. Fast and easy viscosity control with Brookfield eliminates the need for constant sampling to control polymerizations. It is the way to chart the course that's sure end completely safe . . . very important when errors can cost thousands of dollars in materials loss. Complete information is available immediately on request. No obligation, of course. The World's Standard For Viscosity Measurement and Control

Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Stoughton, Massachusetts

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While Part I of this manual, reviewed June 1962, page 63 A, contained tabulated physical data of radioisotopes, Part 2 is concerned with the chemical properties. The first four chapters are concerned with the sources of radioactive chemicals including manufacture and refining. Chapter 5 discusses the concept of purity and the determination of purity; Chapter 6 covers the causes of instability and methods of controlling it, and Chapter 7 describes the behavior of minute quantities and very dilute solutions. The following six chapters refer specifically to the six elements that are most frequently used in tracer experiments: carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, iodine, and chlorine. Finally there are 13 tables illustrating the main synthetic routes to labeled compounds.

Some General Problems of Paper Chromatography. Edited by Ι. Μ. Hais and Κ. Macek. 220 pages. Publishing House of the Czechoslo­ vak Academy of Sciences, Prague. Czechoslovakia. 1,962. Kcs 22,50. This book, translated from the orig­ inal Czech, German, and Russian by J. Michl covers a symposium organized by the Chromatography Group of Czechoslovak Chemical Society held at Liblice, June 23, 1961. The book con­ tains 20 papers concerned with rela­ tions between paper chromatographic behavior and chemical structure and 11 papers which describe attempts at systematic analysis. Reactions of Coordinated Ligands and Homogeneous Catalysis. Ad­ vances in Chemistry Series 37. 25-5 pages. Special Issues Sales, Ameri­ can Chemical Society, 115-5 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington 6, D. C. Paperbound. 1963. $7. This book contains the papers from a symposium sponsored by the Division of Inorganic Chemistry that was held at the 141st Meeting of the ACS. Daryl H. Busch was symposium chair­ man. The book is timely in its concern with the study of organic ligands. Developments have suggested the im­ portance of coordinating reactants with metal ions in controlling organic syn­ theses and the nature of the products from reactions. Classification of Methods for Deter­ mining Particle Size. A Review.

31 pages. Analytical Methods Com­ mittee, Particle Size Analysis SubCommittee. Society for Analytical Chemistry, 14 Belgrave Square, Lon­ don, S. W. 1, Paper Cover. 5s.. post free. This review is available as a reprint. It was published in The Analyst, the Journal of the Society for Analytical Chemistry, March, 1963, Vol. 88, No. 1044, pp. 156-87. Some Methods of Water Analysis for Limnologists. F. J. Mackereth. Freshwater Biological Association. Scientific Publication No. 21. The Ferry House, Ambleside, Westmor­ land, England. 70 pages. 1963. Paper Cover. 4s. 6d. After an introduction which discusses general sampling and laboratory tech­ niques, the following chapters give de­ tailed procedures. Topics covered in-

NEW BOOKS elude dissolved gases of biological significance, conductivity or specific conductance, major anions and cations, compounds of nitrogen, dissolved organic matter, silicon and phosphorus, and other metals. There is also a list of 29 references.


Sur l'Emploi du Courant Alternatif a l'Etude de la Décharge Polarographique. Lo'ik Viet. 85 pages. Service de Documentation et d'Information Technique, 4, Avenue de la Porte-d'Issy, Paris-15e, France 1963. $6.55.


MOVES WHEN YOU FOCUS THE NEW AO MICROSTAR Introducing the new AO Microstar® Microscope by American Optical. Its infinitycorrected optics and new focusing concept make it the most revolutionary new microscope of this century. The newly-designed infinity-corrected optics give field curvature, astigmatic and chromatic corrections never before obtainable except at a premium price. The image is crisply in focus and flat over the entire field of view. Photomicrographs are flat and sharply in focus from edge-to-edge and corner-tocorner of the print. The focusable objective means the body and stage can remain fixed and rigid. The nosepiece moves smoothly inside a protective arm housing on ball-bearing slideways. Virtually frictionless action brings new ease and precision to coarse adjustment focusing. The only force exerted in focusing is the weight of the nosepiece assembly . . . prevents damage to objectives, slides and even the thinnest of coverslips. But there is much more to the AO Microstar story! Get all the information. Ask your AO Sales Representative for a demonstration, or write. R' Registered Trademark American Optical Company.




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This book, written in French, presents a critical examination of the a.c. polarographic method of Breyer and Gutmann. Included are studies of the faradaic impedance of a polarographic discharge, the dropping mercury electrode, and the rotating platinum electrode. Evidence is given of the role, on the one hand, of the kinetics of the reaction and of the diffusion, and, on the other hand, of the frequency and the amplitude of the alternating signal. The relation is established between the faradaic capacitance and the concentration of the discharge ions.



2nd ed. W. Meloche. xi + & Row, 49 East 16, Ν. Υ. 1963.


J. Blaedel, V. W. 964 pages. Harper 33rd St., New York $9.60.

This text has been updated and clarified. It contains improved experi­ ments, new questions and problems, and a treatment of the importance of reaction rates in analytical chemistry. A new chapter on complexation titra­ tions has been added. The topics of analytical chemistry are presented at two levels. The main body of the text is intended for study by chemistry majors and other majors. The Supplement, containing interesting proofs, details, and extensions of some topics from the main text, is available for those who are interested. Chromatographic Analysis. Discus­ sions of the Faraday Society, No. 7, 1949. 336 pages. Butterworths, Inc., 7235 Wisconsin Ave., Washing­ ton 14, D. C. 1963. $12. This book, first published in 1949, has long been out of print, and many of the papers have since become ac­ knowledged classics. It has been re­ printed in response to the many re­ quests and inquiries directed to the Faraday Society.