new books - ACS Publications

new books - ACS work like this is so great that every allowance mu...

0 downloads 74 Views 278KB Size

NEW BOOKS Cinbmatique et Mbcanismes ; Potentiel et MBcnnigue des Fluides. COZLYS p?,ofessC ct la Sorbonne. By N.P0incal.C. R t d i g k p a r A . GuiZlet. r6 X 2j c m ; 385 pp. I’nris : CarrB et N a u d . ‘899. Price, r j fvancs. -Someone has stated that Alexander von Humboldt was the last man possessed of a complete command of the science of his own day. Looking at the present volume, however, which is the thirteenth of a series on physics and applied mathematics, written by a man eminent in pure mathematics and astronomy, one is little induced to enter into comments of the above nature ; for there is no telling where Poincar4’s prolific authorship may not lead. A11 his textbooks are simply and fascinatingly written and have begn deservedly welcomed. Many of them, like the Thermodynamique, the Electricit4 et Optique, etc., have already entered American universities as textbooks. The present volume is no exception in the series The student fond of the geometry of motion, in particular the engineer (to uhom the book as a whole is addressed), will find here a singularly clear and smoothly written treatise, possessing a markedlv original flavor throughout. Unfortunately pure kinematics is always a little disappointing, so long as the reader is aware that dynamics, though somewhat more cumbersome, is so much more efficient from the practical point of view. This is the general impression left after a perusal of the first part of the work, relating to translation, rotation in two and three dimensions, relative and helical motion. A brief chapter on elementary machines follows. Apart from the manner of presentation, the chapter on the Xewtonian potential differs from the classic monograph of Clausius chiefly in terminology. Lines of force, flux of force, etc., are terms now as familiarly used in France as elsewhere. I t is pleasant to note that PoincarC has adopted the round delta of Jacobi to designate partial differential coefficients, an innovation in French texthooks. Ample treatment is accorded to Green’s Theorem, and unusually much space to the attraction of ellipsoids. Hydrostatics includes barometry and flotation, the latter illustrated with many examples. In hydrodynamics the usual equations are derived, with brief mention of gravitational waves, and a final chapter on the chief properties of C. Rarus vortices.


Chemistry : its Evolution and Achievements. m t ;pp viii 176. Nrzo York : WiZliuln seems to the writer that space might be found on the knowledge for some modest volumes, which, without 12

X z8

By F. G . Wiechnznnn. R. Jenkins, 1899. - ‘‘ I t bookshelves of lovers of xish or pretense to dis-

New Books place any learned treatises on the topics they discuss, would offer to their readers a correct and concise synopsis of the subjects they consider. ‘ ‘ Works of this description, -science sketches would seem an appropriate designation for them,-should prove welcome to all who take a general interest in science. . Some knowledge of the various phases through which a science has passed is, moreover, of value in teaching one to place amore just - perhaps it were better to say, a more modest - estimate on the theories of the day. For, while it is indisputable that a truth once discovered is never lost, although the form in which it is embodied may be altered, yet it is also beyond question that doctrines and dicta pass away, even as the men who formulate and pronounce them.” The writer has made an interesting and readable book, the only fault with it being that it is too brief. Wilder D. Bancroft


L’Oeuvre de M. J. van lt Hoff. A propos d’un livre ricent. By P. Duhem. r7 X 25 c m ; 27pp. Paris: A . Hermann, 1500.-The present pamphlet is a reprint of the last of a series of brilliant popular articles, on different branches of physical chemistry, which Duhem has contributed during recent years to a French journal of popular science, the Revue des Questions scientz3qzies. Previous brochures have treated : The Atomic Notation and Atomistic Hypotheses (1892), Reflections 011 Experiniental Physics (1894), The Evolution of Physical Theories (1896), Thermochemistry (1897)~the Phase Rule (1898), and Physical Chemistry (1899). The present article gives a popular account of the scientific work of J. H. van ’t Hoff, subsuming this under the three heads : Stereochemistry, The Displacement of Chemical Equilibrium with Changing Temperature, and the Theory of Dilute Solutions. I t is an enthusiastic tribute of recognition J . E . Tvevor from one strong man of science to the genius of another. Organic Chemistry. By Victor von Richter. Edited by Prof. R. Anschutz. Authorized translation by E. F. S m i t h . 3rd Americaii fvom the 8th German Edition. Vol. I. Chemistry of the Aliphatic Series. Philadelphia : P. Blakiston’s Son and Co., r859. Price, cloth, $3.00. -The aim of the authors of this standard work is to present, in as condensed a form as possible, a complete account of the whole subject matter of organic chemistry. The continuous rapid addition to the material of this science has thus compelled a corresponding increase in the size of successive editions of the book ; until at last its divisions into two volumes has been found necessary. A comparison with the fifth edition (published in 1888) serves to remindone that it is not in the collection of facts alone that the advances made through the last decade consist. I n the fifth edition, for instance, stereochemical theories are passed over with a paragraph in the introduction, even the well-known enantiomorphous tetrahedral figures not being considered worthy of reproduction ; while the methods of determining molecular weights in solution are, naturally enough, omitted altogether. Few could forsee that, within the year, Prof. V. Meyer’s papers on the b e n d oximes would make these two matters the chief topic of discussion among organic chemists. The present edition contains an introduction of fifty-six pages dealing with


New Books

the analysis, molecular weight determination, constitution, and nomenclature of the carbon compounds ; followed by twenty pages on their physical properties and behavior toward heat, light, and electricity. On p. 73, the phrase ‘ energy of a reaction ’ is, unfortunately, used as an equivalent for ‘ the rate at which the reaction proceeds.’ Following V. Meyer and Jacobson, the members of homologous series are, as far as may be, arranged in tables with their f o r m u h and physical constants ; and the descriptive part is enriched by paragraphs on the technical application of the paraffins, fats, oils, etc., and by historical notes on acetoacetic acid, guanidine, the nitriles, etc. The Geneva nomenclature is applied where possible ; the references to the literature are very full ; and the book closes with an index of thirty-seven pages. The appearance of the second edition of von Richter’s Chernie der Kohlenstofverbindungen, in 1880, was greeted by Prof. Kolbe with a scathing article Paragraph entitled : “ Wie m a n ein chemische L e h r u n d Handbuch schreibt after paragraph from the offending textbook was quoted, adorned with exclamation points, and followed by comments such as : Das ist Rein Deutsch und Das schwibt ein deutscher U?iiversitatsprofesso?r! ’ nicht verstandlich ! or by caustically worded instructions in the proper use of fur and UOY. An attack such as this would nowadays hardly be tolerated, even were the eccentric professor still alive to make it ; the labor of compiling, or even of translating, a work like this is so great that every allowance must be made for faults in literary style, consequent on extreme fatigue. Scattered throughout the book, however, sentences may be found fully equal to any quoted by Kolbe. In the hope of keeping it out of a subsequent edition, one of the worst is here printed (from p. 2 4 2 ) : “Acetic ether is the starting-out material f o r the obtainment of acetoacetic ester. W, Lash Miller



) ’


Resistance electrique et Fluidite. ( EncyclopPdie scientifique des -4idemkmoire. ) By Gourk de VillemontCe. rz X 19 o n ; 188 pp. Paris : Gnuthier- Villavs, ‘899. Pifice, cloth 3, papey a.j o francs. -The other volumes of this series have all been condensed expositions of subjects which are treated at greater length in larger treatises. This volume is rather an original essay. The author tries to prove that the product of the electrical conductivity into the coefficient of viscosity is proportional to the concentration and independent of the temperature. While the book is very interesting reading, one would feel more satisfied as to the soundness of the argument if the author had not accepted Bouty’s conclusion that the molecular conductivity of very dilute solutions is independent of the nature of the solute. Wilder D.Bancrojt

Edited by E. Riecke and H. Th. Sinton. Byice, jmarks per quarter year. I n October of last year the first number of a weekly journal of physics was issued by its editors, Prof. E. Riecke and Dr. H. Th. Simon of the University of Gottingen. The object of the new publication is to supplement the monthly journals by the prompt publication of preliminary communications, of occasional lectures on physical topics, of reports on work in other subjects but bearing upon physics, of book reviews, of accounts of new laboratory equipments and laboratory Physikalische Zeitschrift.


X 28 onz. Leipzig : S. Hirzel.


New Books


devices, and of personal items of academic interest. The numbers that have already appeared contain much interesting matter, and it is to be foreseen that the new journal will prove a very welconie addition to the periodical literature J. E . Trevor of physics. Les Sucres et leurs principaux DBrivBs. By L.Maquenne. ( Biblioth2que technologique), r4 X 2r cm ; ii f ro32pp. Pavis: Georges C a r d et C. N a u d , r9oo. Price, cloth, z6francs. -By reason of the amount and importance of the work done on the sugars and their derivatives it has become absolutely necessary that an epitome of the results should be made which would bring the literature up to a comparatively recent date. This has not been done since the appearance of the work of Tollens which came out some years ago. Maquenne has done this and has done it well. The book has a number of references that will compare favorably with any work of its kind that has been published of late years. Questions of discussion such as the birotation of the sugars, and the constitution of the saccharoses have not been dealt with ab if the results were settled, but the views of those who have taken part in the discussion have been clearly and simply given and the reader is allowed to exercise his own judgment in the matter. With regard to the nomenclature, a somewhat novel idea has been introduced. The carbon atoms are numbered and those which show asymmetry are placed as are the numerals in a fraction. Thus d-mannite is exI 45 6 . The isomeric dnlcite is hexanehexol I 3 6. 2.3 3.4 This notation has the advantage of showing clearly the existence of an optical isomer. For with C,, those substances in which the sum of the numerals is a

pressed as hexanehexol

multiple of




n i l (where n is

odd or even) will be inactive, while

those which do not conform to this rule will occur in two optically active modifications. The subject index is complete, but an index of authors would have added materially to the usefulness of the book. C. G . L . Wow Les Matikres odorantes artificielles. By Georg-e F. Jaubert. (Encyclopkdie scientijque des Aide-&moire. 12 X z9 cwz ;rgopp. Paris :Gauthier Villars. Pvice: paper $2.50, boaisds 3 francs. -This is one of the series of Aide-memoire published by Leaut6 and contains most of the synthetic compounds connected with perfume. Short notes of the preparation, literature, and physical and chemical properties are given. C. G . L.Wolf The Urine and the Clinical Chemistry of the Gastric Contents, the Common Poisons, and Milk. B y ] . W. Holland. ' Sixth edition, revised and enlarged. r2 X z9 cm; r24 pp. Philzdelphia : P. Blakiston's Sons and Co. Price: cloth, $r.oo. -This is a small pocket book intended for clinical purposes only, and fulfils its purpose very satisfactorily. Due importance is given to methods of using the centrifuge in the various examinations which the medical student and practitioner so often make. I t is curious that, amongst the number of very excellent clinical tests which the author has given, the estimation of uric acid by means of a standard piperidin solution and the detection of mercury in urine by precipitation with zinc dust should have been omitted. C. G . L . Wolf