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new books - ACS Publicationspubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/j150144a007The account of the origin of the Stadurt deposits ii...

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NEW BOOKS .

A Dictionary of Applied Chemistry. Bj, .Sir / < d w ~ ~ r7d' h o r p r . 1.d. I l . . ( v i ; p p . isii 727. J70rh: L o i i ~ i ~ i o )( ,i ' ~r w, i i ;.L ('o., i c / i , j . /'rife,: 81.j . j o I / ( ' / . -This volume I)e::iny Lvith oilstone. :iii(l viicl5 ivith ii)tlalite. Anioiig t h e interesting items a r e : oieo-rc,ins; o])ium; ihmiurn: oxalic acid: oxyd:ises; oxygen : ozone; ~ i a i n t s ;palladium ; paper: parafin parchment ; perfumes; pvtroleum ; phenol and its homologues; phosphorus; photography ; pigments: pitch : p l a n t - \ p r a y s ; p l a t i n u m ; polarim:try: potassium; pottery :.nd IIor liiie a n d its derivatives: proteins; ptomaines: 1)yrotnetry: i)yrcitechiiy: ciu:irtz: qiitrcitron l u r k ; quiiii)line; c!uiiioties: rac.cmiiiii ; r:i(liii a:tivity: ra(lium: refruc timieti'r: resins , rcasinate lake>: r u h l ~ e r ,ruin ; rust ; salicylic :icitl; iaiidstoiiv ; s:iponitication ; xr\vajie ; silicon : silk ; silver; w i o k e and sinokc p r c v e n t i o ~; ~wall I he artic~le.;on I)aints :inti 011 IiiynicAnti civerlul) more thaii i\ ilesirnl)le ;11i!1 coultl Iictter ha\,e I ~ e e i icontlcii~etlinto one I.iitler \ilicoii, T o n ? ' \ 1)roc'ess 11:iq 1)cc.n irvcrliioketl anti there i, practically iiotliin:: i i i i t h e commercial u ~ e si l l ' ,ilicon. T h e article in I)hotogr:iphy i h n o t w h a t it sliould lie a n d photochemistry i, omitted entirely. Barring these slilis there is little t o he said in t h e w a y of criticism, though there might well ha\-e beeti ail article on plastics in general. T h e account of t h e origin of t h e S t a d u r t deposits i i of esccptional interest. 11. 340. "If we compare t h e composition of t h e Stassfurt deposit; with t h e results of the artificial evaporation of sen-water as carried o u t in 1849 b y L-siglio, wc find t h a t there a r e some differences, partly caused 11y t h e long duration of t h e iiatural process aiid its yearly interruption, partly by t h e loss of mother liquor. The various salts were transformed i n t o t h e minerals iiow present b y :i s u l ~ s c quciit loss of water a n d by their m u t u a l inter-action. and a regular succeision of those minerals was formtid through long periods, causcd 1)y t h e nutumual influx of iresh sea-water. One remarkable difference also is this: whilst in u t i licial eval)oration t h e calcium i u l p h a t c is entirely precipitated :it an early s t a g e , it is formed a t Stassfurt even in t h e strata consisting oi mother-liquor salts. \Yhy t h e calcium sulphate a t Stassfurt is in t h e iorm of anhydrite, n o t in t h a t of gypsum (CaS04.2H30),:is in t h e artificial poration of >ea-water, wc unders t a n d now from t h e olxervations of Hoppeler and Rose, according t o which rom it h y c o n t a c t with a ~ i e c ~ r i ~ . t h e hydration w a t e r of gypsum is a b s t r a c t s d u v u t e d solution of sodidm chloride, a condition which we must assume t o h:cvc existed a t Stassfurt. " I t is quite evident t h a t t h e Stassfurt deposits have n o t been formed by the simple evaporation of a basin of normal sea-water, which would h a v e been required t o possess a d e p t h of a b o u t 30 miles, a n d which would haye protluced :I very different arrangement o i salts. There m u s t have been conditions similar t o those even now found prcsent i n some of t h e S a r m a t i a n lakes. T h u s Gc I'ouIid a t t h e b o t t o m of Lake Eltoii a salt deposit of a thickness 01' 1 2 feet, COIIsisting o r 100 a n n u a l layers, which increased i n strength a n d hordneih from t h e t o p downwards, and a t t h e h o t t o m w r e a? hard ;is stone. Thi, lake i i lilletl with :i s a t u r a t e d brine; by t h c stlrfaee-ev:ii)or:itioil in summer, c r u \ t s of en111mo11 2.;

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halite, K ? S O ~ . ~ I g S O l . r C a 3 C ~ was r , ~ Hiormr-d ~~, in the following w a y : some c a t d l i t e , I T I ; p p . i z S . I,i,ip:ie: .I k ~ i t I ~ ~ i i i i . s t . hI'cr/(i t~ //.i( l i i i f / -111 tht. iiitr(icILic~tii1ii tht.

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:iiithor say.; There h;ivr 1,ccii curiotis t l e v c l i ~ l ) i n c n t ~ i i i t h r :irt o i :in,iIy>is, I'eopI~ used t o recognize t h e reina hle ctlucxtioiial vnlue of xiialysii to t h e youthful chemist. L a t e r , i,eople twli t l it wisc to iiiclude in cour-cz o i atinlytical c h e r n i ~ . t r y many other things 1vhic.h ; I I ~ I I had a n educational value. Coniccjucntly C , cellcnt hooks were w i t t e n which were however Iwtt:.r yiiitetl to ilitrotlucc t h e s t u d e n t til chcmiitry thwi .til teach him ciii:ilysiy I n t h i 5 llcliik c l ~ .ii t t e m l ~ t\vi11 "

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'I'hci-e ieenis til l i e ;I tlifticulty i n regal-tl t o t h e acticiii i i f l i g h t of tlifiercnt On 11. j7 tlie :iuthor s t a t e s t h a t red :ind lilue light act in the sxme \ v ; ~ y011 t h e cells rcgardlcii whether t h e w l a t t e r arc i n tlle iiormal or the al)iii)ri i i a l s t a t e . This seems vr'ry iinprolxitile :ind I'funtl is q u o t e d , 1). 84,a 5 lintliiig :Ldistinct iiiasiinum of seiisitivciicv i i i t h e red a t atjout ; o o p p .

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The author picturc, to liimscli t h e changes in illuiniiiated ieieiiiuiii w i n e ;IS follo\\.s, 11. 12 j : " T h e action of light c1n thi, conductivity of selenium i i ;i r c m i i m e e ~ ) h c i i o t i i -

1,ight of tlelinite m : i w length- s t a r t s u l i those electrons. whose oscill,itiiiii 1)criotl is t h e same a i t h a t of t h e elciting light, and make< t h e m vil)rate. T h e resonance motioiis clue t o t h e ahsorption of light a c t only a s discharging agcints f o r \ilirations which already csist within t h e a t o m . T h e changes i n t h e e m tluctivity of selenium arc caused I)!- t h e vi.:ilile (ljlue, violet) r a y s of light. these o ~ c i l l a t i o n sIxiiig much slon.er, :is cvcrylmdy k n o i v i , t h a n those o f ultra-violet light. Therefore t h e elcctroni :et irce from selenium liy the \-i\il)le light linvc ;L relatively low iiiitial vc.locity x n d conwquently caniiot Iwvc t h e sulistaiicc: I)ut Iiilc ul) itistcatl 011 1.he illuiriiiiatc.tl surfacc of t h e wlciiiuiii. .lccortliiig t o tlic 1iiotIcr11 \.ien.s of t h e cciti(luct:iiice of i i i e t d s . t h e in oi :I ciirrciit i\ : i c w i i i i c l e c t r o n ~a l o n g tlic coiitlt Siiicc light i i i c r c : i ~ e ~ Iisiiied t)y t h e iiiotioii t h e tiuml)er electroil- ai.aila!)Ic ior c:irryiiig t h e eitrreiit, i L iiicrcxieh t h e coiitluctaiicc of the illumiiiatc~:l5uriace. 'I'hc csistciice i i f tliffe,reiit ioriiis tit' sclcniiitii i l l ~ a e hcell xccouiiti Tor t h c cell riilioiitliiig to ~ u c h:I raiige of tlie spccti-tiiii. -45 t h e light penetrates further into t h e wleiiiuin. it sets free electrons froin t h e tlecper layers, m t l t h c ireelloin iir motioii iir t h e electroils incri~:iscswith incrcasiiig thickiie.;.; of t h e conc1uctir:g layer."

CIIOII

The chief coinmercial uses ( i f metallic ieleiiiuiii :ire : \voi-kiiig rclayb to suuiitl hiyiinl,, to ~ i i i to u t liqhts, or to sort coffcc licaiis, 11. 1 4 4 ; tclcplioiiiiig I i y iiieaiis ill' light for clcetrical traiisfcr ( i i Iiicturcs: :is ii colicrer iii wircle.; telegraphy. Il~iitir~i. / I . Hiill1 mil ~

S t u d i e s in Valency. iliiii: . S i i i i / i h i i i ,

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'I'lir. object oi this l:ttle l)ool; i i tci l)i-iiig t o t h e i i i i t i i ~ if t t i i i . ~iiitere-trtl ~ i u cl~cniistryccrt:iiii re1at:oiis ;ciniiny the ciiinl)iniiiy Iiciiver. oi t h e eleirient.i, i i i order t h a t u coiiceptioii of chemical Iiheiionieua m a y l)c ol)taitictl quite a p a r t from t h a t gained b y laboratory practice. I t is i m p o r t a n t , in the aiuthor'.; opinioii, t h a t ntimericd relation; should be studied indepciidei~tly,10 t h a t tie\\- lines of cslieriincnt m a y l i e suggested. I t is necessary t o cstcntl iir refute theoric.: b y research. A t the samc time, i t is itnport:iiit to !inow t h e theoreticnl \-icwi ~ i t l vaiiced l i y those who are t;peei:iliziiig i i i a i l y oiie tlirectiiii~." "

The follorviiig quotal.ioii, 1). 3 I , is n o t :in unfair cine. Consider, t h e n , t h e inactive gases as ii for purposes of a r g u m e n t , or a s :I s i r y g ~ s f i c ~iijpotiie r special case of free ions. liavin I)y thc-oretical :inolysis t h e characteristics of a salt i i i wltttioii, I)ut \vith thi- i l i ici-ewcc, t h a t t h e y rit'e v t i d o ~ v c dtvith v n o r I i i o u 4 y greater internal charges i ) t electricity. 'l%iy idea lends itseli to a form of dircet prooi, zince t h e a t o m i c rr.eight> of t h c higher m e m l m s of the inactive groul) "

m a y lie re~ircsentetll i > - t h e cotn1)iiiation oi :i I~ase-formingelement or coml)oncllt with i i i i acid-formiiig elcinetit or componcni, l i l u i :in iiitermediary Factor t h a t i i either 7 .i or some iririltililc of t h i i \iilue " R e t r x i i i g this arguiiictit. i t will I J V ,c('11 t l ~ i t , i i i t h t , C;IW 111 electrolytei, the ioni t n a y r i o t :iIways tic ~iIiy.;icnlly \c1xir:itvd Iroln eacll other in the hulk of t h e electrolyte; or. riithel-, if t h e w \ \ - e m 1iioi-c atoiiiic electricity ~iresr>nt, the dis.;ociatioii \r.oultl not t:tke ~ ) l n c e . "XVheiice cniiii~it h i i \-astly greater qiialitity of electricity in t h e cl,j.viiilled case of t h e inactive gases? T h e only n n s w r the table affords is t h a t t h e valuc is atomic electricity itself. exiitiiig i n ii highly pol>-merized or molecular

-,.,, -

s t a t e , granting the atomic theory of electricity t h a t h n i heen proved tiy mesns r , is i i d scieri/ijc-cii/y 's Theory of Chemical .L\ction, in which NaCI would he rcpreicnted :I\ SaICCI, IC k i n g a u n i t or bond oi electricity. In t h e i)rcseiit c a w the t i i u t t i c m ~ t i c a l formula, for example, becomes Ca iiIS CI = Ki-.'' li.i/dC'r 1). BfZ?/ft'fJf/ of i n a n y inclepeiitleiit rehearches. Th(' w i r i c i i r - c . . / i n siL#cicii/, Init it tallie5 in general character with Iiair

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1 3 ~G . 11. ( ; i i / / i x r , .\c'c-iiiief d i i i o i i . -?o X ij cw; pp. j o y . Phi/cidc/phici: .I fj. .!,ippi?ii.o/i ( ' o i ! i p ~ i u 191.1. ~, PrI(.e: $3 .Jj.-Thc second edition of thi.; book i. ;I very great i t n ~ ~ r o v e m e tnver it t h e old edition. I t i b very much larger, contain5 a large lot of new material. and has been lirought :IS nearly u1,-to-tlate :'.s t e s t l x w k i t o - r h y . T h e liook contains a description oi the preparatiott a n d method. of studying sliecimeni of alloys, t h e general disthemselvei. showing types of curve. obtained in alloy work, tic stiitly of allov5 themielves T h e t r e a t m e n t is in t h c order of biiiary :inti ternary :illoy\, treating tir,t :ilIoy< wherc no compounds are formed, a n d alloy5 Tvhcrc definite chcniic:~.l c o m p o u n d i cxiit. T h e t r e a t m e n t is i t t t h e order of t h e iolui)ility of (ine coin:)cinent in the other. T h e book is desigtied t o give s t u d e n t i i n inet:1Ilogra~ihy:inti engineering :in itleu of t h e minute s t r u c t u r e alloys. I'hyiical c h a n g e i i n the w l i d i t a t c tluriiig aiitiealitig, e t c . , arc treated in :I general w a y . The app1ic:itioii oi the I'hnsc Rule t o metallography is a1511 ti-eatcd w i t h such i m p o r t a n t I)henoincna .ii different rates of cooling (luring casting will gix-c riie t o . Chapters a r c given 1111 I)ronzcs :tiid Irasses a n d o n the \teelq:, with con>itleraljlc t l i ~ c u s ~ i c iofn t h e .pcei:il iteels. .In interesting chapter is given oii t h e u s e of the ~nicroscopein eitgi ng practice in which a numher of interesting instances, Ivhere thc c:i~isesof ciits have 1,ecn determined b y croiciq:c~. \how t h a t :i single oscopic examination call, i n a , loc~tc t h c trou1)le. wi:ho~it :i Iiirge arnouiit of chemical :inalysis, which in i n a n y cascs would cvcii hi. iiiiufticicnt t o determine t h e source of t h e trouble. T h c later dcvcloptnciits it1 alloy work are givcn tirief mention a t least i n this b o o k . I t is iiot inc:lnt to Iw :i Imctic:tl h:tndliook. h u t rather a t e s t liook th:in otherwiie It ~ i r i ~ f i ~illiis!r:iierl wl~~ l)y :I ~iiiniI)crof photomicrograljhh, t h c hook cotitnining i i i all IO iIlu.tr:itioti~ Kcicretlcei to t h e original The, book is p r i n t i d on good literature :ire giveii a t t h e c i i t l i of t h c h ch;il)tcrq p a p e r : i i i t l i. :I !\-clc(~~iii. :itlditirrii t i i the literature of metallngraphy. 1 he rcfc.rc,lici. ivoiilil l)c inore c a 4 l y folloivcd ii t h e y were included a t thc foot of e:ich ~)aigcr a t h e r th;in :it the e t i t l ~or the c l i a ~ i t c r \ . T h e inaccuracies in t h e liook iii-c v u v few intlcctl. (., Ti.. H P ' l l i l P f f I'

Metallic Alloys.

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T a b l e s annuelles internationales d e constantes e t donndes numeriques.

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L d i / d I J (~' / I . M f i r i c . 170/. II. 2.7 x 28 pp. i' 7jR. Puris: GuzLthifvl-i//ur.s, iyr~3.-The iecolitl vnluine of t h e A n n u a l Tal)lcs i.; fully as valual)le as t h e first o n e and perhaps more SO. T h e r e sccnii t o lie Ie5s space wasted. There will a l w i y , ~lie a question as to w h ~ i tqhoultl or should n o t lie includctl. T h e chemist will probalily feel t h a t ;I good deal of i p a c e is g i w n to sIwctl-osco1iic illy iincc t h c i e are readily :ivailal)lr in t h e a r n e f o r m O n t h e other . lie t h a t t h e physicist; w i 4 i these d:tta. I t is a i e r i o u prolileni for t h e editor t o decide Lvhether or where he shall (lraw the line, anti y e t t h e fiiiancicil side m u s t lie kept in m i n d For t h e p r e w n t the cslieiisc.; are tlcfrayetl more or less completely l i y contributions: b u t i t i i ciniiicntly desirahle t h a t t h e Tables ntually 1)ecome sclf-sui)iioi-ting. I n order to do thi?, t h e editor m u s t either supl)ly Jvhat the scientific pulilic wants or m u s t t r a i n t h e scientific public Ti-iidcr D. Biiiicroft $5 anting w h a t t h e editor furni.;hei.

u ~ ti o

Annalen d e r Natur- u n d Kulturphilosophie. i:tii/d h j IiVi/ic.iiii O ~ / w l d liirilo/,f (;olcl.r.c-lic.iti. Lcipri,q: I ~ r / i i1~' i i f a . \ i i i u , iyi.?. i'vir-(3: I.! i i i o r k s p e r d i o i j ~ ~-1liglit . \-Olutiies of the .I J ? ~ f / / f ' i / tif,i. . ~ c i / r i r p / i i / i , s t J p ~have ij~ ;ilipearctl a i i t l it h:is now l)ecm tlccitletl to ljroaden t h e i e ~ ) l ) of e t h r ,iiiurii:il. ?'he tivclfth \-oluinc c ~ l ~ p c : i therefore rs tititlei- t h c iien title, . I i i i i i i / f ' i i tlcv .\-(I/ILT- riiiti K u I t ~ r phiiosofiiiic. with IZutlolf C;oltlschcitl :15 aisociatc editor a11t1 :L change of lit1l)1izher . l1~iidc.rI ) . Bfiiif.vr).N oiiti

Chemical Arithmetic a n d Calculation of F u r n a c e Charges. B y KeRis X 2,7 ( - ) t i ; pp. Tsii ,?or. I'/iiiciciripliin: J . 5'.L i p p i t ~ r o t tCompfiu>',r y i 2 , /lvif.f'; 54 . ~ J O . the I w i k conilirises a11clemeiitary treatise on c h e n ical calculations, c x m l i l e s Iieing given in the following subjects: 11etric Syst e m ; thermometer c n i i \ ~ e r ~ i o i iqu:iiititative i; c~ilculatioiisi j C chemical equations; calculaticiii or formulae: {itoinic a t i d molecul:ir w e i g h t i ; c d c u l a t i o n s in freezing point, lwiling point, ;iii(I \ r a I i o r density: rlc.tr.1-tniiiatiotis o r molecular weights; gas laws; specific g r a v i t y ; :ihmyinK: \.oIunictric a i i a l y s i i : a n d the, ralculation of furnace charge.; i n metallurgy. N u i n r r o u i t;iIilcs a r v g i t e u in which chemical f a c t o r \ , I;crceiitagc com~)oiitioiio f sul)it:iiicc.y, ~ n o l i u ~ lweights. w yiecific gravitics, :inti nieltinx iii)ints a r r eiiiit:iinc(I. T h e ; i i i t I i i ) I , o i l ~ i n g c0 , st,ites the situation a s regards c1ieinic:il ai-ithmrtic v u ) - clc.;ii-ly. A1a11y of the r~xl)lanatioiisin t h e t c l t will strike t h e eiliert a s puerile. ,< I hey are m e a n t t o be, Nothing more aitonishes t h e writer t h a n t h e inability of m a n y technical m e n to a t t a c k t h e siinlilest prolilcms. G r a d u a t e s in chemistry, with mathematics enough t o compute Ijridgc strains, t u r n Ijale a t t h e idea of 'tackling ' :in clernentary case or itcichiometry. ' Please assume, t o liegiii with, t h a t I ha\-e forgotten all t h a t . i f I e\-cr knew i t , ' \ v o u l d lie ii fair average estimatc u f their :ittittitle. Ilsceliting, t h e n , t h e already csccptetl ' fuiitlatnenta,' a l l else is eyplaitietl \\-here there we~inetlto I)r t h r 4 i ~ l i t c s tchance for i n i s a ~ ~ p r e h c n i i o"i i . This. it is Ixliewtl, i i riot o i i account of the fact t h a t chemical arithmetic is h a r d , b u t Ixcause t h e cheiniht docs n o t always think as he should. T h e hook may therefore be taken as a n :ittempt t o aid t h e man who does n o t h a v e t h e sift o f :I ~toie~liiiimrtric:ilm i l i d 111 t h c i c c o i i d Iiurt of the Iioiik thc. cxlcuhtioii of ftirnnce ch,irges i n metallurgy is taken u l i , in which t h e a u t h o r csplainr fully t h e methods of calculating ( ' / i u i i w i i ~ ~ / .16

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Errata

807

:i charge ior ai1 ore of definitc composition given fluses of definite composition, to furnish a product, slag, etc., of definite composition. T h e a u t h o r hopes t h a t t h e exact calculation will soon replacc the old method of “ a lot of ore, a lot of coke. and ahout a quarter 01‘ a lot of limestone.” T h e hook i < printed in 1x1 a t t r a c t i v e manner on good paper, and is nicely 1)ountl. c. Ti.. R P f f l l P f f

ERII.\TA\ The following corrections should be made in the p a l ~ e rentitled ” T h e Internal Pressure- oi Liquids” by A . I-’.AIathews, Jour. P h y s . Chem.. 17, 603 ( 1 9 1 3 ) : 11. 6 1 n . of the 12th line should he ITl, p. 6 1 5 . Table 4,omit 2 . 2 8 7 for propyl a c e t a t e ; add 2 . 2 6 ( a t 1 9 9 ~ - - 2 3 6 ~ for ) alcohol, Column i. 1). 616. Formula 16 should h e : c i = 3CX’’3YcTc,’S. 1). f i I 6 . Formula I 7 .;hrlulti lie: u = 3 C S ’ ‘3P,-T.2,R ergs. 1). 6 1 6 . Line 2.1, the comma after E o t v o s should be a period.

1). 6 r I . 1). 624.

11. 6 2 8 . p. 6 2 8 .

p. 6 2 8 .

F o r m d a 32, -, should be A. Column 6 in fcirmula for “a”. the exponent after iT,- T) has ilipped down. Line I O . In place of (T,’T,-T)’’3 read tT, IT,-TT))‘’J. Formula 35 should he S* = R(dl-dd:)T,1/3 I(T[ AxPC, Formula 36 shcluld have tii in place of d , . ~