NEW BOOKS, Die modernen Theorien der Chemie. Buch I : Die Atome und ihre Eigenschaften. Lofhar .~ZE_IJEI.. Si.vfh Edifioz. Laigrr clcfa7 $0. . ~ i ioi11 n' ~71 j (CS.~~ f1-1l .WALYJ i ~ 7L 71a B ~ I df. W~ B T E S I~( .~ 1896. P i i r c ' j . 6 0 7iini72s. I n prepariiig a sistli edition of his well knonm book ( ( T h e AIoderii Theories of Chemistry ) ) , Lotliar i\Iej.er decided to publish the work in three separate iroluiiies, corresponding to the three parts into which tlie prer.ious edition had beeti divided. T h e present volume foriiis tlie f i n s f fi'nrf of tlie new edition . , . tlie continuation of the work is prevented bj7 the untimely death of its author. T h e first part is iiiodelled closely 011 the corresponding sections of the last .edition, which has eiijo)~edsuch a wide circulation, in English as well as iii German, that a closer description is ntiiiecessary : it is sufficient to iiote that the book has been brought up to date b y a thorough revision of tlie experimental data, and adiiiissioii of tlie results obtained since 188s. T h e additions are especially noticeable iii the tables ; in that of the vapor density of tlie elements, for example, fluorine appears for the first time, while to the table of the vapor densities of compounds, derivatives of five elements are added ; the paragraph on the vapor density of acetic acid is supplemented I Jan~accouiit of those of the chlorides of aluiiiiiiuni aiid other iiietals ; and in the chapter on the periodic law, a section has been devoted to the positions of gerniaiiium aiid argon. Siniilarly throughout the work ; the curve of atomic volumes, at the close, has been revised to correspoiicl with the text. To make room for the iiiinierous additions, the discussion of soiiie of tlie results has been inucli shortened, the accouiit of tlie optical properties as a function of the atoiiiic weight reserved for a subsequent volume, aiid some of the less successful hypotheses, c. 5.the author's ((particle) ) theory, aiid Pictet's rule for calculating melting-points-have been oiiiitted altogether.
I n view of the iiiaiiy notable iriiprovenieiits in tlie hook, tlie retention of 15.96as tlie atomic weight of oxygen is a little surprising ; it is perhaps owing to tlie circiuiistance that the preface is not coinpleted, that 110 explanation has been given of tlie retention of a number which seeiiis iiiuch less liliel>r to reiiiain periiianently in use coiiveiithan either the iiiore accurate I 5. S8 or the arbitrary-and ieiit-16.oo. There is one other point wliicli iiiust iiot lie passed over in the review of a work wliicli everywhere exercises so great ail influence 011 the teaching of clieiiiistry . Throughout the book-in the preface, in the iiitroduction, in the body of the work, antl in the conclusion, --may lie fouiid repeated warnings i i o f fo roi?/iisrjrc%swith h - i / ~ t h ( but is iiot tlie effect of tliese exhortations on the mind of the reader liable to lie seriously impaired, in oiie iiiiportnnt point at all events, liy tlie very iiiode of treatment of tlie chemical theories adopted iii this Iiook ? To eiititle the work itself: ( ( T h e Xtoiiis aiid their P r o p e r t i e s ) ) , and its first chapter : ( ( T h e Necessitj. of tlie Atomic Hypothesis ))-is not this to blind tlie studeiit to the fact, tliat, after all, tlie subject matter of the i.oluiiie in question is lint the vapor deiisities, specific heats aiitl laws of coiiiliiiiation, i i a i of atoms, but of iiiatter in quantity-is but the results of cimtititatiye experii!ieiits, which ma!., and i l l the future iiiost prolialilj. will, lie looked a t from another point of view thaii that of the atomistic theories of today I Taken as it stands, tliougli part of an unfinished hook, the volLillie forms a complete aiid useful inonograph 011 that part of tlie theory usuallj. treated of in tlie eleiiieiitar!. lectures 011 cliemistr). ; and its publication in a separate foriii will iiiake it iiiore useful thaii ever-liecause more accessible-to students of tliat subject. T T / . Lnsli IlL.i//l.v.
Grundziige der Eektrochemie, auf experimenteller Basis. nun' r86 $(r,q'rs. Lj/iliits Spri)ig cr, B ~ ~ i ~ /1896. i i / . Prii.c.2 . 6 0 mni-ks. T h i s book begins ivith a clescriptioii of tlie plienoiiiena of electrolj.sis, wliicli leads up to experimeiits illustrating Faraday's law, antl Hittorf's conception of the relative velocities of the ions ; aii accouiit of Kolilrausch's work 011 the coiiductivity of dilute solutions, aiid of Arrheiiius' theory of electrolj.tic
R. LiljXr. S t m i i d Ediffoii. .ri
A r m Books.
dissociation in which Kolilrausch’s results received their iiioleculartheoretical interpretation, bring the first section of the work to a close. Tlie next part (pages 58-jg) is devoted to vaii ’ t Hoff’s theory of solution. Begiiiiiing with ai1 account of the classic experiments of Pfeffer oil osmosis, tlie author passes to a description of nietliods for accurately cleteniiiiiing tlie vapor tension, boiling point, aiid fi-eeziiig point of solutions, formulates tlie general laws of these pheiionieiia aiitl tlie exceptions met with in the case of electrolj.tes, aiid finally shows the qiiaiititative connection between all these liranches of physics, in tlie light of the iiioderii t1ieoi-J. of solutions. Tlie tliircl sectioii entitled ( ( T h e osmotic theor!, of tlie current in voltaic cells ) 1 , opeiis with ail alistract of Neriist’s celebrated paper in wliicli Tvas iiiade tlie first application of tlie osniotic pressure theor). to tlie calculatioii of E. h1.F. Tlie use of tlie foriiitilz deduced in this article is illustrated 1ij’ chapters on concentration cells, Daiiiell’s cells, and cells iiivolr.iiig osidatioii aiid reduction ; while the next trvo cliapters, 011 ( ( solution teiisioii of tlie metals)) aiitl on ( ( polarization ) ) respectively, close tliis part of tlie subject. A cliapter 011 irreversible cells, one on storage batteries aiid ten pages 011 ( ( tlie energetics of tlie galvaiiic eleiiient ) ) coiiiplete tlie liool;. Liipke’s ( ( Electroclieiiiie)~is iiiteiitled for tlie use of the ( ( ordii of the recent rapid proliar)’ ) ) clieiiiist wiio wislies to ~ e a r isoiiietliiiig . gress in this lirancli of liis science, and the author lias eiitleavored to gi1.e hiin as clear an idea as possible, liotli of the disco\Teriestliemselves and of tlie theories based upon tlieiii, 11). tlescriliiiig a large 1iuiiil)er of careftill). selected esperiiiients, atid 1iy restricting. the w e of tlie iiiatlieinatics to rvliat is absoliitelj. necessary ;-as is usual in wor1;s of this nature the eleiiieiit of criticism is aliiiost eiitirelJ7 wanting. Tlioro~igli1~in accord with tlie oliject of tlie ivork is the iiitrocluctioii of the loiig article (41 pages), on tlie theory of solutions. In tliis section however there may lie noticed a certain, aliiiost polemical, tone, wliicli was surel). more in place at tlie time when the theories in question were first being iiitroduced, than it is at the present day wlieii their usefulness lias been abiuitlantly deiiioiistrated, arid when those wlio ( ( do not believe in ions)), i. c. wlio do not understand how to make use of this iiew tool of quantitative research, are merely those wlio have no knowledge of tlie great
adr.ance made during the past ten ).ears in the study of clieiiiical aiicl electrical plieiioiiiena. In contrast with this full treatiiieiit of the osmotic theorj. is tlie scant attention paid tlie tlieoq. of energ!. ; no attempt has been macle to emphasize tlie iiiiportaiit point, that it is otilj. owing to tlie ((reversiliility) ) of the cells discussed in chapters I to 4 , sectioii 111, that an!. calcdatioii of their E. M.F. caii lie iiiade : antl, iiiore escusably perhaps3 the account of the iiifluencz of tlie temperature oil electrocheiiiical reactions is Ixsetl oii equations for Ivliicli 110 deduction is given. 011tlie whole, t h e author niust lie regarded ns etiiiiieiitly successful iii liis atteiiipt to make clear the concepticms a n d theories introduced iii the cle\.elopiiieiit of tliis iiiiportniit buliject ; t h e work iiia!- lie heartil!. recotiiiiieiitletl. not oiil\, to tlie class for wliicli it is tlesigtiecl. h i t also to teacliers of tlie sul)jrct, u.lio u.il1 fiiicl in t h e little \.oluiiie a ?,urprisiiigly good collectioii of itistructi\.e esperiiiieiits for use i i i tlie lecture rooiii aiid i i i tlie lnliorator~.. 1 I/. Ltrsli .lli//t.i,.
Practical Methods of Organic Chemistry. Lcltii,,~? GaffC,riii(ri/i/, Ph .U. t i , o , jj/.(?/i,i~io/.iic f//(> L ~ i / i x n i ( iof.~ Hritic,/bc.i;s., .4ctihori;d fi.(ri/s/(z/io/l41, If'. E . S/toOt,r, Ph. D . , i i i s f i . r d o i - iii oig.tricir ~ l i t ~ / i / i ~ii/ ~ i fhc' / : ~ ' L,t,h(;l,// I icixixi(i,.