HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN PROCESS METALLURGY Edited by A . W . D. Hills. Reviewed by E. T. Turkdogan, U. S. Steel Cor$., Monroeuille, Pa. 75746 This is Proceedings of a symposium held by the John Percy Research Group in Process Metallurgy, Imperial College, London, 19 and 20 April 1966. The Proceedings contains seven papers presented at the symposium together with discussion at the end of each paper. Of the seven papers, five are from the Metallurgy Department of Imperial College, one from Centre National de Recherches Metallurgique, LiBge, and one from Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp., Pittsburgh. Most of the papers in this Proceedings have already appeared in some form in other publications. The papers cover specific areas of research related to certain phases of process metallurgy. The students of process metallurgy and the metallurgical research men not initiated in the heat-mass transfer concepts may benefit from this book. The first paper by Poos is on blastfurnace theory and practice; a general review paper, but does not cover the subject matter adequately. The second paper is by Hills on the role of heat and mass transfer in gassolid reactions. A rate equation is derived for transport-controlled topochemical reactions. The experimental results on the rate of calcination of single calcium carbonate spheres are shown to be in good accord with the transport mechanism. I n the third paper, Richardson et al. present their recent investigations of mass transfer across interfaces agitated by bubbles. I n the
two-phase liquid system, the lower phase is mercury-containing indium and the upper phase water containing either mercurous or ferric ions with dextrose, glycerol, or PVA added. The rates of transfer of mercury and indium were measured while bubbling gas. The mass transfer coefficient is found experimentally to be proportional to (D/ Y) 0.2-0.3 in the aqueous phase. Inadequacy of the present theoretical analysis for this type of transport problem is brought out in the paper. A paper by Szekely on some problems in continuous steelmaking is too general; in fact, little is said about steelmaking. Another good paper by Hills and Moore is on the use of integral-profile methods to study heat transfer during solidification. They considered the freezing of a pure metal and compared the mathematical analysis with results on the freezing of lead and tin. A paper by Meyer et al. on process analysis and control of basic oxygen furnaces is based on their experiences in the development of dynamic control of steelmaking in the B O F process from temperature and the carbon content of the melt. I n the last paper, Bradshaw et al. discuss the interaction of bubbles and gas jets with liquids. The factors influencing the velocity and shape of gas bubbles are reviewed. The behavior of free jets and of jets impinging on solid surfaces is reviewed, and some experimental results are given on mass transfer coefficients for a Cot-jet blowing on water.
ix 252 pages. Institution of Mining @ Metallurgy, American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, N . Y . 70017. 1968. $72.50
PRACTICAL EMULSIONS (3RD ED.) Part I. Materials and Equipment. Part II. Applications By H. Bennett, J. L. Bishop, Jr., and M . L. Wuljkghofl. Reviewed by Paul Becher, Atlas Chemical Industries, Inc . The first and second editions of this work appeared in 1943 and 1947, respectively, and over the years have never been far from the bench of the practical worker in emulsions. The name of the book was, in fact, strikingly appropriate, for the first and second editions contained a world of useful and pertinent information on emulsion formulation. Now, 21 years later, comes the third edition. And in an attempt to be “really up-to-date,” I fear that the authors have not really succeeded in writing a book on practical emulsions, nor, needless to say, have they written a treatise on theoretical emulsions. The first volume covers the following topics: Introduction; Basic Considerations; Properties of Emulsions; Ingredients and Additives; Analysis and Testing of Emulsions; Techniques of Emulsification ; Emulsifying Equipment; Emulsion Plants and Production Machinery; Selected Topics; Bibliography; List of Emulsifying Agents; Suppliers of Emulsifying Agents (but no addresses!); Glossary; Index. The second volume is essentially a formulary, and contains formulas classified as follows: Agricultural Emulsions ; Bituminous Emulsions; Cleaners; Cosmetics; Emulsion Polymerization; Foams and Antifoams; Gasoline Emulsions; Food Emulsions; Leather and Paper Treatment Emulsions; Medical Emulsions; Cutting Oils, Soluble Oils, Miscible Oils; Paint; Polishes;
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Resin and Rubber Emulsions; Textile Emulsions. An appendix contains Conversion Tables; Viscosity Conversion Chart; Color Standards Comparator; Temperature Conversion Table; Rate of Flow Chart; List of Emulsifying Agents; Suppliers of Emulsifying Agents. The last two items are identical with those in the first volume. The first three chapters, amounting to 5 2 pages, and covering theoretical background material are, unfortunately, totally inadequate. For example, the discussion of micelle formation covers three and a half uninformative pages, half of which is devoted to a listing of methods of determining critical micelle concentration, abbreviated from another book. Double-layer theory is dismissed in a paragraph. And it is difficult to see why Stokes law is expressed only in words when it was found appropriate to give the mathematical formulation in the earlier editions. The later chapters, where we return to practical considerations, are much more useful, and Chapter 7, “Emulsion Plants and Machinery,” well repays study by anyone interested in the setting u p of a plant for the manufacture of emulsions. The 20-page Glossary may be of some value, but many of the definitions are rather vapid and none are of quantitative. The definition “Aging”--”Process of growing old”-is perhaps not totally representative, but does give a measure of the semantic content. The formulas listed in Volume 2 are taken in part from the senior author’s well-known “Chemical Formulary,” in part from the patent literature, but mostly from the trade literature of emulsifier manufacturers. Thus, most of the information embodied in this volume could be obtained by writing, at most, a dozen letters, or by the same number of phone calls. T o some, however, 14
the convenience of having a collection of tried-and-true formulas in one place may be significant. I n general, the volumes are written in a readable, although not elegant, style. They are well printed, handy to hold, and typographical errors are minimal. I t is perhaps worth noting that the second edition contained 50% more textual material at one-fifth the cost. Inflation cannot be a complete explanation. Although the book appears overpriced in terms of its content, I can well imagine that it would serve a useful purpose in some small manufacturing plants. But if you have a copy of the edition, I’d hang on to it, and write those dozen letters.
Vol. 1, vii 180 pp. $12. Vol. 2, 204 pp., $13. Chemical Publishing Co., New York, N . Y. 1968
HEAT TRANSFER, 2ND ED. By J.P. Holman. Reviewed by Kenneth J . Bell, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, 0kla, 74074 This is the second edition of a textbook, the first edition of which has been widely adapted for undergraduate heat transfer courses in mechanical engineering, engineering science, and engineering core curricula. This edition is about a third larger than the first, the additional pages being mainly devoted to one new chapter on Special Topics (such as ablation and heat transfer in magneto fluidynamic systems), along with augmentation of the chapters on steady-state conduction, unsteadystate conduction, natural convection, and radiation. Additional homework problems and references have been included. The chief interest of this book to readers of this journal is for self-study. Anyone who has been away from
INDUSTRIAL A N D E N G I N E E R I N G CHEMISTRY
heat transfer for a while will probably find that this book is one of the better ways to obtain an elementary but quantitative overview of the subject. No prior detailed knowledge of thermodynamics or fluid mechanics is necessary, and only the basic concepts and techniques of calculus are assumed ; building from these, the author introduces the reader to analytical and numerical solutions of the conduction equation, to boundary layer, integral and analog techniques in convection, and to radiation network analysis, as well as the standard fare out of the typical unit operations textbook. Opinions on the pedagogical effectiveness of an author’s writing tend to vary violently, but I think this author is uncommonly clear-possibly because he makes no pretense to producing an authoritative dissertation, critical review, or general-purpose reference book. Numerous worked-out examples help the selfstudier a great deal, and the illustrations are generally pertinent and lucid. The references are a mixed bag, many being variously parochial, hard-to-obtain, out-of-date, or of extremely narrow interest, but enough of the key sources are given to start the would-be specialist off on the right track. The book appears to be well-balanced and free of major errors or omissions. The assumptions and limitations on the various analyses and procedures are usually stated succinctly in the text if one pays attention. (One notable exception to several of these comments is the derivation of the general Fourier equation in which some key parentheses and subscripts are omitted during the derivation; to the self-studier, the final result may appear to be more the result of caprice than a Taylor series expansion. The boundary layer formulation would then benefit by a reference back to the earlier derivation.)
I n summary, this is unabashedly an introductory textbook and one which is unusually useful for selfstudy. Not many readers of I&EC will want it or need it, but it is an excellent investment for those who do.
xiii 401 pages. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 300 West 42nd St., New York, N . Y . 10036. 1968. $10.50
THE HANDLING OF CHEMICAL DATA By P. D. Lark, B. R. Craven, and R. C. L. Bosworth. Reviewed by Joseph H. S. Haggin, Information Systems and Planning, ACS Publications Immediate problems in data handling seem to be solved either by employing simple methods from the nearest text on statistics or by throwing ourselves on the mercy of the computing center. The former solution is seldom satisfying because the methods are too general or don’t account for the peculiarities of the data. The latter solution often leaves us with the suspicion that the computing people haven’t really understood our problem; they are usually much too glib to make us feel comfortable. I t would be highly desirable, then, to have an easily usable book that combined the elements of rigor, reasonable comprehensiveness, and handbook utility, but was also aimed at the data problems of chemists and chemical engineers. This book is about the best combination of those qualities to appear in recent memory. In an unusually lucid presentation the authors begin with the origin of chemical data and pass through the subjects of single-variable measurements, errors, probability and significance tests, two-variable relations, multivariable relations, linearity and nonlinearity, smoothing, interpolation, and the operations of integration and differentiation. All
these topics are treated in the context of numerical analysis but they also devote some needed attention to dimensional analysis as well. Dimensional analysis has been shrouded in mystery for most people. One of my former professors once observed that about all the study of dimensional analysis produced in his students was the “pi-theorem syndrome.” Though the syndrome is more likely to be found among engineers, chemists suffer too. I n fact, it sometimes comes as a shock to discover that concern with dimensions may lead to remarkable simplifications of the numerical analysis. This theme is amplified by the authors, though not nearly enough to satisfy the engineers among us. Even so the presence of both numerical and dimensional considerations in a single volume must be unusual, if not unique, in a work of this practical level. In judging the practical level of the book we note that the many worked examples sprinkled throughout are the kind that one normally encounters in the laboratory and in the industrial plant. Further, there is no preoccupation with proofs of theorems, and several rapid estimating devices are included, such as Spearman’s nomograph for rank correlation coefficients. Though apparently intended as an auxiliary text for experimentalists, the book is more of a reference work for practitioners of chemistry and engineering in general. We confess to having been originally attracted to the book by the name of the late Prof. Bosworth. Luckily for us it proved to be worthy of the name and typifies the unique qualities of Prof. Bosworth’s earlier solo efforts. The coauthors have obviously inherited his touch and have made a bona fide contribution. xi 379pages. Pergamon Press, Inc., 44-07 21st St., Long Island City, N . Y . 17107. 7968. $73
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