Radiation Chemistry


Radiation Chemistryhttps://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ba-1968-0081.ch005about 680 n.m. in pure ice at -10°, —31°,...

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5 Pulse Radiolysis of Ice and Frozen

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HF Solutions G. NILSSON and H. C. C H R I S T E N S E N AB Atomenergi, Studsvik, Sweden J. F E N G E R , P. PAGSBERG, and S. O. N I E L S E N Danish A E C Research Establishment, Risö, Denmark

A transient species, supposed to be a trapped electron, has been observed in pure ice and in frozen 3 X 10 M HF solu­ tion by means of the pulse radiolysis technique. The maxi­ mum of the absorption band of the transient is located at about 680 n.m. in pure ice at -10°, —31°, and —50°C. The half-width of the band is considerably smaller than that of the solvated electron in liquid water. The G-values for the transient are estimated to be 0.3, 0.07, and 0.02 at —10°, —31°, and —50°C. respectively and to be 0.1 in the frozen HF solution at —10°C. The decay of the transient is com­ plex in pure ice but first order in the frozen HF solution. -5

T t is now a well established fact that electrons produced by ionizing radiation in liquid water can exist in the water as solvated electrons for several hundred /xsec. ( 9 ) . They have a high extinction coefficient for light absorption and the absorption spectrum is a broad band with a maximum at 720 n.m. (11). The trap for the electron is supposed to be a potential well formed by polarization of the water by the electron itself (16). Electrons are also trapped at 77 °K. in irradiated alkaline glassy ice (8, 22, 23, 25), in glassy ice containing N a C 1 0 , L i C l , and K F (6,7) and in frozen sugar solutions ( 5 ) . Electrons trapped in glassy ice at this temperature are stabilized and can therefore be studied by E S R or optical spectroscopy a long time after irradiation. The electrons trapped i n alkaline ice are characterized by an E S R singlet at g = 2.001 and an 4

71 In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.

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absorption band with a maximum at 585 n.m. (22, 23). The trap is supposed to be a hydroxide anion vacancy formed during irradiation ( 25 ) or a defect present in the ice lattice before irradiation (2). Trapped electrons are furthermore formed by the deposition of alkali-metal atoms on pure ice at 77°K. (3). The ice samples were microcrystalline or amorphous and from the E S R spectrum which exhibited hyperfine structure one could draw the conclusion that the electron was located in a well defined trap in which it was surrounded by six protons. The optical absorption band had a broad plateau ranging from about 600 to 680 n.m. Until recently no E S R signals or optical absorption caused by electrons were detected when pure crystalline ice was examined after irradiation at 77 °K. This result had been expected since the self-trapping mechanism will probably give very shallow traps i n crystalline ice. The reason is that the dielectric relaxation time even at the melting point of ice is roughly six orders of magnitude longer than for water, and it has therefore been assumed that the dipole orientation will not contribute to the energy. The concentration of lattice defects which can act as traps is also smaller in pure crystalline ice than i n glassy ice. The most likely result would therefore be that the electrons are rapidly recaptured by their parent ions (15, 17, 18, 19). A year ago Shubin, Zhigunov, Zolotarevsky, and Dolin used the pulse radiolysis technique and discovered a transient species in pure crystalline ice and i n frozen crystalline solutions of L i C 1 0 and K O H which had an absorption band in the same spectral range as the solvated electron i n liquid water ( 20, 21 ). Similar experiments were independently started at Risô and spectra of the same shape as those reported by Shubin et al. were recorded when pure crystalline ice and crystalline ice containing H F was irradiated. 4

In a quite recent report Eiben and Taub have demonstrated that electrons are stabilized also in pure crystalline ice at 77°K. (4). The maximum of the absorption band appeared at 640 n.m. The G-value was only 2 Χ 10" and the yield increased with dose up to about 5 M r a d and then approached a constant value. 4

Experimental The pure ice crystals were prepared in a quartz tube from triply distilled water which was degassed by shaking and evacuation. This procedure included saturation of the water twice at a pressure of 1 atm. with hydrogen gas that had passed a liquid nitrogen cooled trap. The freezing was then performed under a hydrogen pressure of 1 atm. In order to get sufficiently transparent crystals a method for single crystal preparation ( 10 ) was adopted and the water samples were frozen

In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.

5.

NILSSON E T A L .

Ice and Frozen HF Solutions

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slowly from the surface by putting the quartz tube in a thermally controlled jacket. The transparency of the ice samples obtained in this way was satisfactory. Examination of the samples with polarized light showed that they generally consisted of a few large crystals oriented in different directions. When the H F crystals were prepared the quartz tube was protected by a thin layer of paraffin wax. Triply distilled water was degassed by shaking and evacuation to remove most of the 0 and C 0 and then some tenth of a ml. of a 0.5M H F solution was added. The solution was saturated with H , degassed, resaturated, and degassed again. Finally the solution was saturated with H and frozen in the same way as the pure water samples. A piece of the top and the bottom of the crystal was cut away, and the concentration of H F in the two samples was determined spectrophotometrically by the zirconium-alizarin method (14). The crystal was discarded if a concentration gradient was detected. The concentration of H F in the irradiated part of the crystal was also determined. A schematic drawing of the irradiation setup is shown in Figure 1. The ice samples, about 30 mm. long and 25 mm. in diameter, are placed in a tube of stainless steel which has a mirror in one end and a Suprasil window in the other. Methanol cooled with dry ice is pumped through a jacket surrounding the tube and the temperature of the ice crystal is measured with a small thermocouple in direct contact with the crystal surface. Light from an Osram xenon lamp passes twice through the crystal which was irradiated from the mirror end of the Cryostat with single 0.4-3.6 /xsec. electron pulses with a current of about 300 mA. The electron energy was about 11 Mev. and the dose in the order of 10 rad. The experiments were performed at the linear electron accelerator at Riso and the transient spectra were recorded by means of a fast photoelectric 2

2

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2

2

4

Mirror

Figure 1.

Schematic drawing of the irradiation setup

In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.

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system developed for pulse radiolysis studies. The dose was measured by replacing the ice crystal with a polystyrene cell with thin polystyrene windows which was filled with N 0 saturated, 1 m M hexacyanoferrate(II) solution and subsequently recording the concentration of the hexacyanoferrate(III) ions produced by the electron pulse. 2

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Results and Discussion The absorption spectra of pure ice irradiated at —10°, —31°, and —50°C. are shown in Figure 2 and the absorption spectra of pure ice and frozen 3 X 10~ M H F solution irradiated at —10 °C. are shown in F i g ­ ure 3. The points refer to minimum light transmission as read from the oscilloscope traces and to a crystal length of 30 mm. and a dose of 10 rad. 5

4

0.4 r

Figure 2. The absorption spectra of pure ice irradiated at -10° (φ), -31° (+) and -50°C.(Q) The figures show that the transient species has a broad absorption band with maximum absorption in the same spectral range as the solvated electron i n liquid water. The peak height decreases with decreasing In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.

5.

NiLssoN

Ice and Frozen H F Solutions

ET AL.

75

temperature and for the H F crystal the yield is about one third of that in pure ice. The shape and position of the spectrum indicates that the observed species is a trapped electron.

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0.4

r

I

300

ι

ι

400

500

ι

ι

600

700

ι

800

1

900

WAVELENGTH (nm)

Figure 3. The absorption spectra at —10°C. of irradiated pure ice (Φ) and frozen 3 X 10~ M H F solution (Ο) 5

The nature of the electron trap is not known. If the electron is trapped by the same mechanism as i n liquid water its energy in e.v. may be given by (12) E = ,/m[4Al(e f

op

1

- c , " ) + 1 . 3 7 ( „ - ι - c," ) (1 - ε , , " ) ] 1

2



1

(1)

1

where c is the optical and e the static dielectric constant and m and μ are the mass and effective mass of the electron respectively. In this for­ mula both orientation and electronic polarization is included. If the data op

for water at 2 0 ° C . (E =

s

1.72 e.v. ( I I ) , c, =

80.2 (24),

and e

op

=

1.78)

are substituted in Equation 1, then μ/τη = 1.03. The value of μ/τη would probably be about the same i n ice at — 1 0 ° C . The dielectric relaxation

In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.

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time at this temperature is, however, about 60 /xsec. ( 1 ), which means that the dipole orientation would not contribute to the energy of the trapped electron. Then e, should be replaced by the high frequency value c = 3.15 in Equation 1 and the absorption peak would have been found at about 2600 n.m. Instead the position of the peak is at 680 n.m.—i.e., the trapping energy is larger than in water. This result indicates that it is likely that the dipole orientation contributes to the energy whatever the details of the trapping mechanism are. There was, however, no displace­ ment of the absorption peak during the lifetime of the transient—i.e., the full trapping energy was developed within 0.4 ^sec., which is much shorter than the dielectric relaxation time. The explanation may be that the electrons are trapped at positions in the ice lattice where the dipole relaxation time is not given by the dielectric relaxation time but is con­ siderably shorter. The existence of electron traps in pure ice has been s

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1

ι 200

x

1 300

1 400

1 I I I 500 600 700 800 WAVELENGTH (nm)

• 900

ι 1000

Figure 4. The absorption spectra of the electron trapped in ice at -10° (+), -31° (Q) and -50°C. (A) and the ab­ sorption spectrum of the solvated electron in water at 20°C. (solid line). The spectra for the electron in ice are calculated using an oscillator strength = 0.65

In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.

5.

NILSSON E T A L .

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Ice and Frozen HF Solutions

demonstrated by Bennett et al. (3) and by Eiben and Taub (4). If the traps are dislocations it seems reasonable to assume that the relaxation time for dipole orientation is decreased in this perturbated part of the ice lattice. The relaxation time may be so short that it takes less than 0.4 jmsec. for the electron to polarize the lattice and create a trap of full depth. These regions need not be large since the potential energy of the trapped 00

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electron is proportional to f

^

where R is the cage radius, and inte-

gration to 10R w i l l give 90% of the energy. The trapping energy may then be given by Equation 1. The value of c for ice is 1.71 and c is equal to 94.2 at —10°C. ( J ) . If these values and μ/τη = 1.03 are substituted in Equation 1 we find that the absorption maximum is located at 679 nm. If this trapping mechanism is correct a reasonable assumption would be that the oscillator strength has the same value in ice and water. This assumption has been made and the result is shown in Figure 4. The spectra are calculated for / = 0.65 ( 13 ) and the absorption spectrum of the solvated electron is shown for comparison. As seen from the figure the maximum of the absorption band is displaced to a shorter wave­ length in ice and the half width of the peak is smaller in ice than in water. op

s

The G-values, collected in Table I, have been calculated from the optical densities by using the extinction coefficients in Figure 4. The values have been corrected with respect to the decay of the transient during the electron pulse. Table I. Sample

°C.

Pure ice

-10 -31 -50 Frozen 3 X 10"•>M H F sol. - 1 0

D

0

0.358 —0.134 —0.054 —0.086

e

G

30200 35800 36500 30200

0.3 —0.07 —0.02 —0.1

The yield of the transient was not changed even after 100 electron pulses had been given to the same ice crystal. W e do not know if there is a sufficient number of traps in the ice crystal to account for this. The decay of the transient in ice containing 3 X 10" M H F is first order with a half-life of 0.5 /xsec. The decay of the transient in pure ice is, however, complex and we have therefore used a computer to evaluate the data. A large number of kinetic models have been investigated and we have found that the decay contains a second order reaction with a rate constant of about 1 0 M sec." . The value of the constant is very little temperature dependent and may therefore represent tunneling of 5

U

_ 1

1

In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.

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the protons to the trapping site. It seems likely that a fraction of the electrons decay according to first order kinetics.

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Literature Cited (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

Auty, R. P., Cole, R. H., J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1309 (1952). Barzynski, H., Schulte-Frohlinde, D., Z. Naturforsch. 22a, 2131 (1967). Bennett, J. E., Mile, B., Thomas, Α., J. Chem. Soc. 1967, 1393. Eiben, K., Taub, I. Α., Nature 216, 782 (1967). Elliott, W. R., Science 157, 558 (1967). Ershov, B. G., Pikaev, A. K., Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Khim 9, 1637 (1966). Ershov, B. G., Pikaev, A. K., High Energy Chem. 1, 25 (1967). Ershov, B. G., Pikaev, A. K., Glazunov, P. J., Spitsyn, V. I., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 149, 363 (1963). Hart, E . J., Gordon, S., Fielden, Ε. M., J. Phys. Chem. 70, 150 (1966). Jona, F., Scherrer, P., Helv. Phys. Acta 25, 35 (1952). Keene, J. P., Discussions Faraday Soc. 36, 304 (1963). Kevan, L., Progr. Solid State Chem. 2, 304 (1965).

(13) Matheson, M. S., A D V A N . CHEM. SER. 50, 45 (1965).

(14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21)

(22) (23) (24) (25)

Megregian, S., Maier, F. J., J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 44, 239 (1952). Moorthy, P. N., Weiss, J. J., A D V A N . C H E M . SER. 50, 180 (1965). Platzman, R. L., U. S. Natl. Acad. Sci. Pub. No. 305, 34 (1953). Schiller, R., J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2760 (1965). Ibid., 47, 2278 (1967). Ibid., 47, 2281 (1967). Shubin, V. N., Zhigunov, V . I., Zolotarevsky, V. I., Dolin, P. I., Nature 212, 1002 (1966). Shubin, V . N., Zhigunov, V. I., Zolotarevsky, V . I., Dolin, P. I., Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 174, 416 (1967). Schulte-Frohlinde, D., Eiben, Κ., Z. Naturforsch. 17a, 445 (1962). Ibid., 18a, 199 (1963). Vidulich, G . Α., Evans, D . F., Kay, R. L . , J. Phys. Chem. 71, 656 (1967). Zimbrick, J., Kevan, L., J. Chem. Phys. 47, 2364 (1967).

RECEIVED January 5 , 1 9 6 8 .

In Radiation Chemistry; Hart, E.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1968.