Research Watch: Identifying bacteria - Environmental Science


Research Watch: Identifying bacteria - Environmental Science...

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erful research tools with which to identify and manipulate those mechanisms that contribute to herbicide selectivity and resistance. (Davies, ].; Caseley, J. "Herbicide Safeners: A Review," C. Pestic. Sci. 1999,55 (11), 1043-1058)

Mercury Mining contamination. The authors analyzed geochemical aspects and the environmental impacts of mercury from the old mining area of Valle del Azogue, smelting slags, mining waste, and partially exploited mineralization that remains a few meters underground. (Navarro-Flores, A., et al. "Modeling of Modern Mercury Vapor Transport in an Ancient Hydrothermal System: Environmental and Geochemical Implications," Appl. Geochem. 2000 15 (3) 281-294)

Nutrients in groundwater

Toxicity

Increased use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in the last half century has led to increased potential for contamination of groundwater by nutrients. U.S. Geological Survey scientists B. Nolan and J. Stoner report the occurrence and distribution of nutrients in groundwater beneath agricultural and urban lands and in major aquifers, based on studies conducted during 1992-1995 by the first 20 NAWQA study units. Results indicate that nitrate is detected in 71% of groundwater samples, more than 13 times as often as ammonia nitrite organic nitrogen and orthophosphate based on a common detection threshold of 0 2 mg/L Nitrate exceeds the maximum contaminant level 10 mg/L as nitroopn in more than 15% of grounriwater samples from 4 of 33 major aqiiifers commonly source

Lead uptake. The authors assessed plant uptake of lead from soils sampled at a clay target facility in Canterbury, New Zealand, and found that lead concentrations in the roots of all five species grown were several magnitudes higher than those present in the leaves. (Rooney, C. P., et al. "Distribution and Phytoavailability of Lead in a Soil Contaminated With Lead Shot," Water, Air, Soil, Pollut. 1999, 116 (3-4), 535-548)

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Methods Octanol-water coefficients. The authors compared the quality of the models for predicting octanol-water coefficients for heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, taking into consideration such factors as method simplicity, availability of descriptors, and closeness of correlation with newly measured log K w values. (Li, L., et al. "Comparison of Four Methods of Predicting Newly Measured Octanol-Water Coefficients (Log K ) for Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds and the Partition Mechanism " Environ Toxicol Chem 1999 18 (12) 2723-2728)

Monitoring Pollutants in Europe. European monitoring data for mercury and chlorinated organic compounds in fresh and saline water, biota, and sediment were examined for trends over the last 25 years, with results showing statistically significant downward trends for mercury and many organochlorine compounds in both water and biota samples. (Comber, S.; Gardner, M. "An Assessment of Trends in European Environmental Data for Mercury and Chlorinated Organic Compounds in

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Waste Life-cycle assessment. This paper provides quantitative guidance, based on environmental impact, for choosing the best waste management option for a material. (Edwards, D. W; Schelling, J. "Municipal Waste Life-Cycle Assessment Part 2: Transport Analysis and Glass Case Study," Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 1999, 7 (B5), 259-274)

Water and Biota," Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 243-244, 193-201)

Wastewater Soil PCBs in soil. Results indicate that localized point sources as well air mass movement contribute to the deposition of PCBs from municipal solid waste incinerators onto soil. (Chang, Yoon-Seok, et al. "PCBs' Contributions to the Total TEQ Released From Korean Municipal and Industrial Waste Incinerators," Chemosphere 1999, 39 (15), 2629-2640)

Silver speciation. Silver, inorganic sulfide, and thiol compounds were measured in municipal wastewater effluent, receiving waters, and pore waters from an anoxic lake sediment in order to predict silver speciation in these systems. (Adams, N. W H.; Kramer, J. R. "Silver Speciation in Wastewater Effluent, Surface Waters, and Pore Waters," Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999, 18 (12), 2667-2673)

Water Quality

Technology Identifying bacteria. This paper presents an overview of different physicochemical instrumental techniques for direct and indirect identification of bacteria and includes a review of recent advances in the development of alternative enzyme- and immunosensors for detection of patiiogenic bacteria in a variety of fields. (Ivnitski, D., et al. "Biosensors for Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria," Biosens. Bioelectron. 1999, 14 (7), 599-624)

River nutrients. During the last 30 or 40 years, a few historical records show that, in some places like the Southern Bight of the North Sea, or the Northern Adriatic, algal proliferation as intense as presently observed was already regularly occurring at the end of the 19th century. (Billen, C , et al. "Estimates of EarlyIndustrial Inputs of Nutrients to River Systems: Implication for Coastal Eutrophication " Sci. Total Environ 1999 243-244 43-52)

APRIL 1, 2000 / ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY/ NEWS • 1 8 9 A