Research Watch: Mold exposure study - Environmental Science


Research Watch: Mold exposure study - Environmental Science...

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RESEARCH WATCH

Air Ammonia emissions inventory. A geographic high-resolution global emissions inventory for NH3 was compiled and analyzed for principal known sources. (Bouwman, A. E; Lee, D. S.; Asman, W.A.H.; Dentener, E J.; Van Der Hoek, K. W.; Olivier, J.G.J. "A Global High-Resolution Emission Inventory for Ammonia," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 1997,,2(A), 561-587) Vitamins protect against ozone damage. Results suggest that antioxidants protect against acute effects of ozone on lung function. (Grievink, L.; Jansen, S.M.A.; Van't Veer, R; Brunekreef, B. "Acute Effects of Ozone on Pulmonary Function of Cyclists Receiving Antioxidant Supplements," Occup. Environ. Med. 1998, 55, 13-17)

Biodegradation Dichloromethane biodegradation. Dichloromethane can be degraded in a granular, activated-carbon fluidized-bed reactor using readily available activated sludge as an inoculum. (Flanagan, W. R "Biodegradation of Dichloromethane in a Granular Activated Carbon Fluidized-Bed Reactor," Water Environ. Ress.998, ,7(1), 60-66) Phenanthrene biodegradation. The effects of partitioning rate, nonaqueous phase liquid-water interfacial area, and NAPL toxicity on the microbial metabolisn of phenanthrene present in a range of different NAPLs were studied. (Carroquino, M. J.; Alexander, M. "Factors Affecting the Biodegradation of Phenanthrene Initially Dissolved in Different Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids," Environ. Toxicol. Chem. .998, ,7(2)) 265-270) Polymer biodegradability. The relevance of laboratory and field tests for determining the compostability of polymeric products or packaging materials was evaluated, (van der Zee, M.; Stoutjesdijk, J. H.; Feil, H.;

Fungal biosorbents for heavy metals The propensity for fungal cell walls to bind heavy metals makes them useful as biosorbents for wastewater treatment. G. Sarret and coworkers evaluated zinc and lead complexation sites on Penicillium chrysogenumthrough analysis of sorption isotherms and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. Results indicate that the predominant cell wall binding sites are phosphoryl groups with carboxyl groups making up the remainder. Zinc was found to be coordinated to phosphoryl sites in a tetrahedral configuration; carboxyl groups only became involved at very high zinc loadings. Lead was preferentially associated with minor carboxyl sites. {Environ. Sci. Techno!., th\s issue, pp. 1648-1655)

Feijen, J. "Relevance of Aquatic Biodegradation Tests for Predicting Degradation of Polymeric Materials During Biological Solid Waste Treatment," Chemosphere 1197, 36(3), 461^173)

found, based on a reexamination of evidence linking diesel exhaust exposures to lung cancer risk. (Cox, Jr., L. A. "Does Diesel Exhaust Cause Human Lung Cancer?" Risk Anal. 1997, 27(6), 807-827)

Bioremediation Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soil. The potential of three plant species for bioremediation of 137Cs-contaminated soil was investigated. Results indicate that red root pigweed has high potential for this application. (Lasat, M. M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Ebbs, S. D; Cornish, J. E.; Kochian, L. V "Phytoremediation of a Radiocesium-Contaminated Soil: Evaluation of Cesium-137 Bioaccumulation in the Shoots of Three Plant Species," /. Environ. Qual. 1998, 27, 165-169)

Contaminants Fate of PAH compounds. A comprehensive mass balance model that simulates the fate of PAH compounds in a complex air-water-sediment environment shows good agreement with reported measurements. (Lun, R.; Lee, K.; De Marco, L.; Nalewajko, C; Mackay, D. "A Model of the Fate of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada," Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1998, ,7(2), 333-341)

Health A diesel exhaust-cancer link? No causal association between lung cancer and diesel exhaust was

0013-936X/98/0932-283A$15.00/0 © 1998 American Chemical Society

Particulate matter and mortality. On the basis of air pollution models, it is predicted that many avoidable deaths will occur because of exposure to increasing levels of particulate matter. (Davis, D. L., et al. "Short-Term Improvements in Public Health From Global-Climate Policies on Fossil-Fuel Combustion: An Interim Report," Lancet 1997, 350, 1341-49)

Indoor air Mold exposure study. Respiratory symptoms among children exposed to indoor air molds at a day-care center were studied. (Koskinen, O. M.; Husman, T M.; Hyvarinen, A. M.; Reponen, T. A.; Nevalainen, A. I. "Two Moldy Day-Care Centers: A Follow-Up Study of Respiratory Symptoms and Infections," Indoor Air 1997, 7, 262-268)

Measurements Analyzing bioaccumulative chemicals. A simple and efficient procedure is described for enrichment of organic chemicals from lipid-containing samples. (Strandberg, B.; Bergqvist, P-A; Rappe, C. "Dialysis With Semipermeable Membranes as an Efficient Lipid Removal Method

JUNE 1, 1998 / ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY / NEWS • 2 8 3 A