Research Watch: Renewable resources - Environmental Science

Research Watch: Renewable resources - Environmental Science...

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Uncertainty for Environmental Decision Making: A Case Study of the Coherence of Independently Derived Environmental Quality Objectives for Air and Water," Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999,18 (8), 1856-1867) Large natural systems. Global parameter sensitivity analyses that are potentially useful at all stages of the modeling process of natural systems are described and used to assess regional vulnerability of groundwater to contamination by pesticides. (Soutter, M.; Musy, A. "Global Sensitivity Analyses of Three Pesticide Leaching Models Using a Monte Carlo Approach," /. Environ. Qual. 1999,28 (4), 1290-1297)

OZONE Ozone phytotoxicity. The body of scientific evidence on 0 3 phytotoxicity and whether the data now available are sufficient to mandate 0 3 control strategies over the European Commission territory are discussed. (De Santis, F. "New Directions: Will a New European Vegetation Ozone Standard Be Fair to All European Countries?" Atmos. Environ. 1999,33 (23), 3873-3874)

PESTICIDES Global HCH usage. Results show that India was the most contaminated country in 1990 and is most likely the most polluted by technical HCH today. (Li, Y. F. "Global Technical Hexachlorocyclohexane Usage and Its Contamination Consequences in the Environment: From 1948 to 1997," Sci. Total Environ. 1999,232(3), 121-158)

RENEWABLE ENERGY Photovoltaics. The advantages and limitations of photovoltaic solar modules for energy generation are reviewed, with an emphasis on siliconbased solar cells; recent developments suggest that thin-film crystalline silicon—especially, microcrystalline silicon—is evolving as a prime candidate for future photovoltaic applications. (Shah, A.; et al. "Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells," Science 1999, 285 (5428), 692-698)

Atmospheric chemistry of

MMT Quantification of possible environmental impacts of the gasoline additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) requires an understanding of its atmospheric chemistry. This was studied by T J. Wellington and coworkers using laboratory smog chamber systems. They found that MMT, which absorbs strongly in the UV-visible region, undergoes photolysis, producing CO and an unidentified species believed to be methylcyclopentadienyl manganese dicarbonyl (MMD). MMD undergoes rapid photolysis, liberating additional CO. Reaction of MMT with OH and 0 3 proceeded rapidly. During the day, the atmospheric loss of MMT proceeds via photolysis; at night, reaction with 0 3 can be significant. [Environ. Sci. Technol., this issue, pp. 4232-4238)

Renewable resources. Energy payback, carbon dioxide abatement, energy storage, and pathways for introducing hydrogen technologies into the energy infrastructure are examined in terms of whether money and energy should be spent on carbon dioxode sequestration or implementation of renewable resource technologies. (Turner, J. A. "A Realizable Energy Future," Science 1999, 285 (5428), 687-689)

at lower levels of the food web, with no biomagnification detected at upper levels, except in mosquito fish. (Liang, Y.; Cheung, R. Y. H.; Wong, M. H. "Reclamation of Wastewater for Polyculture of Freshwater Fish: Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Fish," Water Res. 1999,33 (11), 2690-2700) Dioxin elimination. The advantages and limitations of several possible approaches that use biological end points to determine the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the environment and ultimately define virtual elimination were evaluated. (Servos, M. R.; et al. "Developing Biological Endpoints for Defining Virtual Elimination: A Case Study for PCDDs and PCDFs," Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 1999, 34 (3), 391^22) Estrogen effects. This study addresses whether estrogens and their mimics are present in marine waters and if so, whether the effects are harmful to populations and communities through changes in reproductive and other physiological processes. (Allen, Y; et al. "Survey of Estrogenic Activity in United Kingdom Estuarine and Coastal Waters and Its Effects on Gonadal Development of the Flounder Platichthys flesus," Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999, 18 (8), 1791-1800)

WASTE TECHNOLOGY Electrode preparation. The concept and potential of electrochemical procedures are described for biomolecule immobilization on electrode surfaces based on electrochemically polymerized films. (Cosnier, S. "Biomolecule Immobilization on Electrode Surfaces by Entrapment or Attachment to Electrochemically Polymerized Films—A Review," Biosens. Bioelectron. 1999,14 (5), 443-456)

TOXICITY Cultured fish. Results of a study of the bioaccumulation of trace metals in polycultured fish showed that bioaccumulation occurred in the organisms

Demolition wastes. The risks associated with landfilling demolition wastes were assessed by analyzing potential inorganic contaminants and factors controlling their mobility. (Johnson, C. A.; Moench, H.; Brandenberger, S. "Assessing the Potential Long-Term Behavior of the Landfill Fraction of Sorted Demolition Wastes,"/. Environ. Qual. 1999, 28 (4), 1061-1067) Environmental engineering. Technological innovations contributing to the ongoing shift in environmental engineering from waste disposal to waste reclamation are summarized. (Iranpour, R.; et al. "Environmental Engineering: Energy Value of Replacing Waste Disposal With Resource Recovery," Science 1999, 285 (5428), 706-711)