Research Watch: Water test alternative - Environmental Science


Research Watch: Water test alternative - Environmental Science...

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centrations have a negative impact on the health and survival of nestling and juvenile free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida and finds no significant differences in health parameters or in the probability of surviving during the first eight months of age between egrets that were dosed with Hg and those that were not. (Sepulveda, M. S., et al. "Effects of Mercury on Health and First-Year Survival of Free-Ranging Great Egrets (Ardea albus) from Southern Florida" Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1999 37 (3) 369-376) Air-surface exchange. The authors developed a formula for estimating bidirectional air-surface exchange of elemental mercury (Hg°) for natural surfaces, which can be used to provide lower boundary conditions for regional/global atmospheric transport and deposition models. (Xu, X., et al. "Formulation of Bidirectional Atmosphere-Surface Exchanges of Elemental Mercury", Atmos. Environ. 1999, 33 (27), 4345-4355)

Toxicity

Cryptosporidium parvum transport Cryptosporidium parvum is potentially lethal for some humans and animals. The infectious stage of C. parvum is a protozoan oocyst—consumption of as few as 10 oocysts can lead to infection, and contamination in groundwater and wells at low concentrations of the parasite is frequent. T. Harter and co-workers characterized the transport behavior of C. parvum oocysts in saturated, sandy sediments and found that the oocysts, like other colloids, are subject to velocity enhancement. In medium and coarse sands the oocysts traveled 10-30% faster than a conservative tracer A clean-bed filtration model without detachment could predict maximum oocyst concentrations following a C parvum contamination event After the initial breakthrnngh howpupr contaminatpri nnroit*: media

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Water test alternative. This study examines an alternative to the periodic renewal of overlying water during toxicity tests by testing under static conditions using atypical test vessels. (Borgmann, U.; Norwood, W P. "Sediment Toxicity Testing Using Large Water-Sediment Ratios: An Alternative to Water Renewal", Environ. Pollut. 1999, 106 (3) 333-339)

Waste Incineration study. This research examined the adsorption behavior of organic compounds and heavy metals at various incineration conditions and found results that indicate activated carbon has a high adsorption capacity compared with zeolite. (Yu, L., et al. "Adsorption on Carbon and Zeolite of Pollutants From Flue Gas During Incineration", /. Environ. Eng. 1999, 125 (10) 925-932)

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Modeling Lake quality. The author examined chemical compounds and equilibrium trends in mine pit lakes to guide the application of geochemical models for predicting future lake water quality at open pit mines. (Eary, L. E. "Geochemical and Equilibrium Trends in Mine Pit Lakes", Appl. Geochem. 1999, 14 (8), 963-987) Groundwater GIS. This study includes 78 references about Geographic Information Systems in groundwater and watershed modeling, mapping, management, planning, and restoration. (Sweeney, M. W. "Geographic Information Systems", Water Environ. Res. 1999, 71 (5), 551-556)

Ozone Ozone standard. The author examines the strengths and weaknesses of the body of scientific evidence on 0 3 phytotoxicity and whether information currently available is sufficient to mandate 0 3 control strategies over the entire European Commis-

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sion territory. (De Santis, F. "New Directions: Will a New European Vegetation Ozone Standard Be Fair to All European Countries?" Atmos. Environ. 1999, 33 (23), 3873-3874)

Wastewater

Impact of clouds. The authors examine the multiphase photochemistry of both gas and aqueous phases of CI organic compounds within a nonprecipitating cloud on a local scale. (Monod, A.; Carlier, E "Impact of Clouds on the Tropospheric Ozone Budget: Direct Effect of Multiphase Photochemistry of Soluble Organic Compounds", Atmos. Environ. 1999, 33 (27), 4431—4446)

Toxics identification. The authors developed an efficient and novel method for identifying toxic compounds in industrial wastewater, which incorporates various techniques, including the recently developed ToxAlertlO system based upon luminescence inhibition of freezedried Vibrio fischeri. (Castillo, M.; Barcelo, D. "Identification of Polar Toxicants in Industrial Wastewaters Using Toxicity-Based Fractionation Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry", Anal. Chem. 1999 71 (17), 3769-3776)

Soils

Water

Elements in soils. Baseline soil concentrations, based on 448 representative Florida surface soils, were established for 15 potentially toxic elements (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn). (Chen, M.; Ma, L. Q.; Harris, W. G. "Baseline Concentrations of 15 Trace Elements in Florida Surface Soils," /. Environ. Qual. 1999, 28 (4), 1173-1181)

Metals and nutrients. The authors examined the spatial and temporal distribution of copper, nickel, zinc, and dissolved silica in ocean water and related this to phytoplankton activity, as well as other factors. (Loscher, B. M. "Relationships Among Ni, Cu, Zn, and Major Nutrients in the Southern Ocean", Mar. Chem. 1999, 67 (1-2), 67-102)

JANUARY 1, 2000 / ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY / NEWS • 3 9 A