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THE COMMITMENT National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice

July 2015

Message from the

PRESIDENT Welcome to the 2015 Summer Edition of the National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice Newsletter. The present issue headlines the imminent 42nd Annual Conference and Training Institute, as well as, provides me, as your servant leader, with the opportunity to communicate my thoughts on emerging issues that are germane and important to both the criminal justice profession and the communities in which we actively serve. Presented with this platform, the recent and unfortunate events destabilizing Baltimore, MD, as well as, other cities around the country reinforces the need for criminal justice professionals and civic leaders within our respective community to further enhance and strengthen efforts for building positive, productive, and sustainable relationships between law enforcement agencies and minority communities. While the behaviors of a few bad apples distracts from the real issues affecting the poor (i.e. economic deprivation, unemployment, and educational disenfranchisement, all of which constitute the basis for high rates of incarceration, as well as, other social dysfunctions), these problems continue to persist with little to no resolve. Such continuity emanates from the lack of attention given to these social problems, as well as, the limited scope of the media in presenting only one side of an issue when it relates to communities of color. For example, the media’s attention on the burning drug store within a Baltimore community as spawning negativity, as opposed to the fact that there was only one drug store within this community, baffled me, for in the small community where I live there are more than six drug stores within a mile radius. However, instead of reporting the lack of drug stores, which provide citizens with access to medicinal resources and services, vital in improving their health and quality of life, the media focused solely on the fact that the drug store was burning down, thus reflecting the biased nature of discourse within the media. Additionally, I am taken aback by the high unemployment rates for African American males, between the ages of 20 and 24. Take for example the city of Baltimore compared with the state of Maryland. The statistics revealed a whopping 56% unemployment rate for African American males compared with an unemployment rate of 8.7% for Baltimore and an unemployment rate of 5.4% for the state of Maryland. Moreover, while the graduation rate averaged 73.5% “To Whom Much is Given …. Much is Required”

Inside This Issue Message from the Vice President 3 President’ s Report Card

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Current Events

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Association News

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Recommended Scholarship

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Students Corner

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Social Commentaries

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Membership Application

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43rd Annual Conference and Training Institute

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Executive Officers Carlyle Holder President

Terrie McGee Vice President

Vernise Robinson Secretary

Charles Lockett Treasurer This is an official publication of the National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice. This publication is designed to explore the full spectrum of African-American involvement in the criminal justice field, and to examine the range of issues in this arena. Its aim is to enhance communications and to keep members of NABCJ informed of developments and achievements throughout the country. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of NABCJ, its affiliates or advertisers. All photos and articles will be subject to editing according to available space. All material becomes the property of NABCJ and will not be returned. NABCJ is a 501c tax exempt organization. Visit our Web site: www.nabcj.org Guest Editors: Melvina T. Sumter and Frank Wood - Old Dominion University

Submissions for the Winter newsletter are due by October 15, 2015 Address submissions to: Deborah Burwell at [email protected]

Message from The President (continued) for the city of Baltimore compared to an average graduation rate of 87.5% for the state of Maryland. Likewise, the city of Baltimore SAT scores were 100 points below both the state and national average. Furthermore, of all the seniors enrolled in Baltimore Public Schools, only 46% of the seniors passed the high school assessment test. I share these statistics with you in hopes of enriching your understanding of these issues as not just a criminal justice issue, but as a breakdown in the social fabrics of the community at large. I want to refer you back to the article I wrote about the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri in which I referenced countless other Fergusons in other cities of the United States who suffer from similar symptoms of social disorder and social injustices reflected in the events of Baltimore. The time has come for our leaders to recognize the suffering of urban communities, a suffering engendered by years of neglect, and the need for a massive reinvestment in economic, social, cultural, and human capital, thus reversing this downward trend. When there is no hope for a better life, the resulting impact on the entire community undermines both the collectivity and the sense of solidarity within these communities, and in most cases, a response from law enforcement is necessitated in order to regain a sense of order; however, such a response only compounds the problem. For years we have witnessed that irrespective of whose governing our inner cities, the resources needed to enhance the quality of life within inner city communities are oftentimes neglected. Furthermore, given recent media attention on the numerous African American males killed at the hands of police officials, one would believe that a deliberate and concerted effort would have been instituted to educate and train officers from resorting to the use of deadly force which should be a last resort. This comment is not a wholesale indictment of the brave men and women whose daily commitment to making our communities safer which improves the quality of life within these communities. This comment is intended for those departments not in tune with the recommendations of the Presidential Task Force on 21st Century Policing Report, which provides a roadmap for police agencies in addressing the disparities experienced by communities of color relative to the equal enforcement and protection of all of its citizenry. Hence, the reasoning for this year’s conference theme: “NABCJ – A Change Agent: Meeting the Demands of Criminal Justice Reform.” This theme appropriately reinforces our deliberative and concentrative efforts for identifying solutions that address a myriad of issues confronting both our profession and communities. These plenary sessions and workshops bring awareness to the criminal and social justice changes we need to implement, so that everyone, irrespective of race, will be able to fulfill their God given talents. This problem is not simply a White or Black problem; it is a human problem that has disproportionately impacted one segment of the populace versus the other negatively. I have been encouraged by leaders and politicians from both sides of the political landscape, whose willingness to stimulate serious dialogues on ways of reversing this dilemma, to promote NABCJ as a pioneer in both filling in the gap, as well as, serving as a bridge for equal justice for All Americans! Your Servant Leader,

Carlyle I. Holder, National President

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Message from the Vice President As the National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice 42nd Conference convenes, I cannot help but to reflect back on the 41st Annual Conference, a conference in which explosive speakers reenergized our members with workshop topics that emphasized the controversial "Stand Your Ground Laws" and the "No Child Left Behind Act". The Conference also acknowledged the continued injustices plaguing our African American youth and our respective communities. Subsequent to the conclusion of the conference, events within marginalized communities, namely within African American communities, showcased a barrage of police shootings, which claimed the lives of countless unarmed black men. As a result of these police shootings, numerous protest, mirroring a war in which many African Americans were losing, erupted. Presently, our sons and daughters, fathers and mothers, as well as, our brothers and sisters are dying at the hands of the very individuals who have sworn oaths to protect and serve the community at large. This year's Conference Theme, "A Change Agent: Meeting the Demands of Criminal Justice Reform", promises to address these issues engendering division within our communities. As such, issues such as police shootings, which appears to have evolved into a normative standard, as well as, issues of racism, tolerance, and acceptance will be key topics of discussions at this year’s conference. Furthermore, the Conference will provide solutions on how NABCJ, as a pioneer organization within the criminal justice system, can start the healing process, restore and educate our respective communities, and overcome the stigma of "Blind Justice". We must enrich the minds of rioters, as well as, calm the minds of individuals whose anguish and frustrations further destroys both their respective neighborhoods, as well as, their collective sense of solidarity. This enrichment will assist these individuals in developing a better understanding of the inequities of the “Scales of Justice”. As a group, we must not embrace defeat; instead, we must provide answers on how to "Bridge the Divide". NABCJ Chapters are continuing their quest in providing outreach in their respective communities by engaging in community service initiatives and/or projects, partnering with other agencies to implement effective and inspirational educational workshops, and working closely with our youth in enhanced mentoring programs. Each NABCJ Chapter is commended for their countless hours of providing service to their respective communities, as well as, for honoring the charge set forth by NABCJ’s founding fathers. I look forward to seeing you in Phoenix, Arizona as we embrace the responsibility of providing effective solutions to the issues wrecking the very fabric of our existence. Sincerely, Terri McGee, National Vice President

“We must enrich the minds of rioters, as well as, calm the minds of individuals whose anguish and frustrations further destroys both their respective neighborhoods, as well as, their collective sense of solidarity.”

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President’s Report Card

Within the past year, President Holder has actively advanced initiatives essential in positioning NABCJ as a pioneer of criminal justice reform, as well as, headlining NABCJ as a premier criminal justice solutions organization both nationally and internationally. President Holder continues to further his six strategic priorities, developed within his action plan upon his taking office, promote and encourage engagement in NABCJ’s National Signature Programs, promote and enforce a voter registration initiative, as well as, strengthen the Justice Sunday Initiatives. Overall, President Holder’s Report Card demarcates his accomplishments this past year.

Upon taking office, President Holder identified six strategic priorities necessary for sustaining the viability of the organization, securing additional fiscal resources, enhancing his role as a leader in influencing public policy as it relates to the administration, management, and operation of the justice system, providing service and outreach programs to the community, and developing the skills and competencies of professionals who work in the justice system, as well as, other relevant agencies. Delineated below are the six strategic priorities, as well as, samples of initiatives undertaken by President Holder during this past year that underscore his commitment and devotion to the continued growth of NABCJ. PRIORITY ONE: Support the development of adult, affiliate, and student chapters. President Holder hosted the First Andrew Chisholm Professional Development Institute that focused on in-depth content-based reentry challenges and initiatives during the 42nd Annual Conference and Training Institute. He also provided continued oversight for the ‘Student Council’, which continues to advance the interests of the entire student membership base, engage students in the affairs of the organization, provide a venue for students to express their concerns, and afford student members with the opportunity to identify programs that best accommodate their needs. President Holder also participated in a leadership retreat and panel discussion at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia and delivered a presentation at Bethune-Cookman and Florida A&M University about establishing student chapters at each University. PRIORITY TWO: Strengthen media relations and internal communication with adult, affiliate, and student chapters. President Holder produced the ‘Student Exchange’, a newsletter designed to enhance communication between the student chapters, as well as, increase students’ awareness of organizational operations and outreach initiatives. He also continued the distribution of the bimonthly newsletter, ‘The Pulse’, and continued to utilize teleconferencing for meetings, committee meetings, regional meetings, and town hall meetings with organization members in order to increase membership involvement in the affairs of the organization. PRIORITY THREE: Strengthen NABCJ’s Financial Portfolio in order to generate additional fiscal capital and corporate sponsorships. Continued to implement and carry out annual fundraising initiatives. President Holder developed a standardized sponsorship brochure for seeking additional funding for the organization. He also formalized a relationship with ShawnTech Communications to provide fiscal sponsorships, obtained funding to host the 2015 Black Directors Roundtable during the 42 nd Annual Conference, and secured fiscal sponsorship from Nationwide Insurance Company. PRIORITY FOUR Foster local, affiliate, and student engagement with their respective local communities in order to create effective community outreach programs, promote positive youth development, stimulate community revitalization, and build community capacity. President Holder and the National Alliance of Faith and Justice’s (NAFJ) President, Addie Richburg, filmed a promo for PEN or PENCIL™, NAFJ’s signature program. Both presidents also visited Ferguson, Missouri in October, 2014 to observe the PEN or PENCIL™ activity and the ‘Take a Stand to Keep a Seat’ event, which were held at Jennings Jr. High School and McCluer South Berkeley High School respectively. Additionally, President Holder presided as the keynote speaker during the North Carolina Chapter’s ‘School to Prison Pipeline’ Conference held in Durham, NC. He also established a Voter Registration Initiative, whereby, each chapter is expected to register 100 voters by the end of October, 2015. PRIORITY FIVE: Serve as a vehicle for providing input into legislation and public policy formulations in areas of the criminal justice system, such as crime, the administration of justice, and crime prevention and intervention. President Holder and NAFJ’s President, Addie Richburg, met with the Department of Justice, Office of Delinquency and Delinquency Prevention, to discuss NABCJ’s Youth Summit and the Pen or Pencil Initiative. Both presidents also engaged in a roundtable symposium sponsored by the Department of Justice, Office of Delinquency Prevention, to discuss youth mentoring programs. President Holder attended the Chuck Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections to brainstorm strategies for addressing a federal mandate that develops initiatives for the purposes of reforming the federal prison system. He also submitted a letter of support to have Loretta Lynch confirmed as the United States Attorney General, as well as, submitted a letter of support to limit solitary confinement for juveniles in the State of California. President Holder continues to promote programs that support President Obama’s ‘My Brother’s Keeper Initiative.’ PRIORITY SIX: Network with other organizations and groups with similar objectives and interests. NABCJ partnered with Father’s Inc. for the 1st Annual ‘National Save Our Son’s Night’ and the 1 st Annual ‘National Save Our Daughters Night.’ President Holder was among a group of 300 selected delegations who participated in a one week journey to Selma, called the ‘Moving Classroom.’ The ‘Moving Classroom’ reenacted the historic 50 th Anniversary of the Selma to Montgomery March. NABCJ member and St. Louis City Safety Director, Rich Gray, selected Major Rochelle Jones to accompany three Ferguson students and one Ferguson teacher on this journey. President Holder attended the Congressional Black Caucus as a representative of NABCJ and provided specialized workshops. He formalized a partnership with the U.S. Dream Academy to provide mentorships for children of incarcerated parents. President Holder continues to work with the Returning Citizens Taskforce to establish a plan to provide grants to returning citizens.

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Advanced Voter Registration Initiative

National Signature Programs In 2013 President Holder launched two National Community Service Projects, ‘Adopt-A-School’ and the ‘Blessings in a Backpack’ programs. During the past year, slightly more than half of NABCJ’s chapters participated in the ‘Adopt-A-School Program’ and a third of NABCJ’s chapters sponsored a ‘Blessings-In-ABackpack Program.’

Adopt-A-School Innovative partnerships between local chapters and public schools designed to enhance the quality of education, enrich learning experiences, and close academic achievement gaps. Programs such as tutoring, mentoring, and the provision of social services target youth, who either reside in distressed communities, have poor to marginal academic performance, are not academically motivated, or have irregular school attendance.

Blessings-In-A-Backpack Designed to help meet the nutritional needs of children and families. Approximately 69 percent of school children are on free or reduced lunch programs. It is not uncommon for many of these kids to have little to no food to eat on the weekends during the school year. NABCJ volunteers, in collaboration with school officials, distribute backpacks, filled with enough nonperishable food for the weekend, to students participating in the federally funded free or reduced fee hot lunch program.

Recognizing the lack of adequate representation of minority groups within the domain of politics and government, President Holder initiated a charge requesting that each NABCJ Chapter establish voter registration booths and at a minimum of at least 100 new registered voters by the end of October, 2015. The directive does not give preference to any particular political party, rather the directive encourages members in the community to further educate themselves on the platforms and directions of respective candidates. President Holder therefore, urges NABCJ members to actively participate and educate members of their respective communities on the importance of casting their votes, especially provided the history of voting for African Americans within the United States and the impact ones’ vote has on engendering change.

Strengthened

Justice Sunday Programs Justice Sunday, founded in 2000 by the National Alliance of Faith and Justice (NAFJ), is a national movement to honor the late Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as an icon for change through service. Justice Sunday, which commences the day prior to Martin Luther King (MLK) Day, incorporates a faith tradition rooted in protecting and advancing human and civil rights for not only African Americans, but for other marginalized populations within society as well. Since that time, NABCJ has partnered with NAFJ to carry out Justice Sunday programs on an annual basis. During this past year, President Holder initiated a charge for all NABCJ Chapters to observe and participate in this day of service. In doing so, he established a Justice Sunday committee and charged them with implementing strategies to encourage NABCJ Chapters to organize and implement a project at a national site in order to commemorate MLK Day. Although all of the NABCJ chapters were not able to observe Justice Sunday, the response rate was overwhelmingly supportive, with over 19 chapters, as well as, the chapter in Trinidad coordinating Justice Sunday activities in their respective churches and communities.

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NABCJ MONITORS THE COLSON TASK FORCE ON FEDERAL CORRECTIONS

NABCJ has been monitoring the activities of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections Reform. This blue bipartisan taskforce is examining evidence-based practices for the purposes of reforming the federal prison system whose experiences with rising inmate populations and a growing cost to the budget necessitates the need for reformation and change. A substantial percentage of NABCJ members work for the Federal Bureau of Prisons including our current National President, Carlyle Holder, who prior to his retirement in 2008, worked for the Federal Bureau of Prisons for 27 and a half years. In his attendance at the first public meeting of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections, President Holder assured the Task Force of NABCJ’s active participation, as well as, requested that NABCJ be afforded the opportunity to address the Task Force prior to the presentation of their final report to Congress.

The Task Force Mission December, 9, 2014 signaled a dramatic shift in the dynamics underlying the dimensions of the federal prison system, for the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections was established to develop policy recommendations to avert continued growth in the federal prison population, ensure offender accountability, and reduce recidivism. Specifically, with analytic support from the Urban Institute and Center for Effective Public Policy, the Charles Colson Task Force will:    

Examine the problems and challenges facing the Bureau of Prisons; Identify the drivers of federal prison population growth and increasing corrections costs; Evaluate policy options to address the drivers and identify recommendations; and Prepare and submit a final report with findings, conclusions, policy recommendations, and legislative changes for consideration by Congress, the Attorney General, and the President.

J.C. Watts, Jr., the chairman of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections, accepted the responsibility of spearheading the process of federal prison reform in order to further enhance the quality of safety within federal prisons, as well as, combat the high cost associated with the growing number of inmates within the federal prison system. Essentially, this transformation process seeks to reduce prison cost, as well as, promote an overall humane atmosphere, one that strengthens the quality of life for both inmates, as well as, correctional officials within the prison system. According to the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections, the federal prison system has witnessed an increase in prison growth “by a factor of eight” since 1980, and the cost for operating the federal prison system, which averages nearly 7 billion dollars annually, a rate comparable to “a quarter of the Justice Department’s budget”, necessitates prison transformation in order to further cut cost, enhance the quality of life within the federal prison system, and counter the growing population of federal prisoners within corrections .

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OHIO CHAPTER AFFILIATES Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Lima Mansfield

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Recommended Scholarship

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These acclaimed peer-reviewed publications are groundbreaking empirically-based scholarship which addresses emergent social problems such as the rise of penal severity, mass incarceration, prisoner re-entry, the relationship between inequality and crime, the connection between residential segregation and crime, and crimes of the rich and powerful that are important to the criminal justice and social service profession, communities we serve, and around the globe. This scholarship is shared with you to enrich your understanding of these social problems as well as increase your awareness of the deliberate and concentrative strategies and policy recommendations identified by the authors to develop a harms reduction approach to reverse the mass incarceration grand experiment, reduce crime and recidivism, implement evidence-based re-entry programs, strengthen community capacity, and create better and safer communities for everyone.

2014 NY: NYU Press

2014 London and NY: Routledge

In The Punishment Imperative, eminent criminologists Todd R. Clear and Natasha A. Frost argue that America’s move to mass incarceration from the 1960s to the early 2000s was more than just a response to crime or a collection of policies adopted in isolation; it was a grand social experiment. Tracing a wide array of trends related to the criminal justice system, this book charts the rise of penal severity in America and speculates that a variety of forces—fiscal, political, and evidentiary—have finally come together to bring this great social experiment to an end. The authors stress that while the doubling of the crime rate in the late 1960s represented one of the most pressing social problems at the time, it was instead the way crime posed a political problem—and thereby offered a political opportunity—that became the basis for the great rise in punishment. Clear and Frost contend that the public’s growing realization that the severe policies themselves, not growing crime rates, were the main cause of increased incarceration eventually led to a surge of interest in taking a more rehabilitative, pragmatic, and cooperative approach to dealing with criminal offenders that still continues to this day. Part historical study, part forward-looking policy analysis, The Punishment Imperative is a compelling study of a generation of crime and punishment in America. This book addresses immensely consequential crimes in the world today that, to date, have been almost wholly neglected by students of crime and criminal justice: crimes of globalization. This term refers to the hugely harmful consequences of the policies and practices of international financial institutions – principally in the global South. A case is made for characterizing these policies and practices specifically as crime. Although there is now a substantial criminological literature on transnational crimes, crimes of states and state-corporate crimes, crimes of globalization intersect with, but are not synonymous with, these crimes. Identifying specific reasons why students of crime and criminal justice should have an interest in this topic, this text also identifies underlying assumptions, defines key terms, and situates crimes of globalization within the criminological enterprise. The authors also define crimes of globalization and review the literature to date on the topic; review the current forms of crimes of globalization; outline an integrated theory of crimes of globalization; and identify the challenges of controlling the international financial institutions that perpetrate crimes of globalization, including the role of an emerging Global Justice Movement. How do social scientists study the impact of social networking sites on racial identity formation? How has the Internet impacted the accumulation of social and cultural capital? By synthesizing insights across a variety of disciplines, this book builds an original theoretical perspective through which these and other questions about core social processes can be addressed. Three case studies of how African Americans use information and communication technologies (ICTs) are used to illustrate this theoretical perspective. Graham shows how groups can leverage ICTs to overcome historical inequalities. The book argues that the lenses through which scholars and society’s leaders think about new technology place too much emphasis on the technological and economic aspects of ICTs, and not enough on the impact of ICTs on social processes at the everyday level.

2014 NY: Peter Lang

Recommended Scholarship

2012 NY: Russell Sage Foundation

2012 NY: NYU Press

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(continued)

More than half a century after the first Jim Crow laws were dismantled, the majority of urban neighborhoods in the United States remain segregated by race. The degree of social and economic advantage or disadvantage that each community experiences—particularly its crime rate—is most often a reflection of which group is in the majority. As Ruth Peterson and Lauren Krivo note in Divergent Social Worlds, “Race, place, and crime are still inextricably linked in the minds of the public.” This book broadens the scope of single-city, black/white studies by using national data to compare local crime patterns in five racially distinct types of neighborhoods. Peterson and Krivo meticulously demonstrate how residential segregation creates and maintains inequality in neighborhood crime rates. Based on the authors’ groundbreaking National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS), Divergent Social Worlds provides a more complete picture of the social conditions underlying neighborhood crime patterns than has ever before been drawn. The study includes economic, social, and local investment data for nearly nine thousand neighborhoods in eighty-seven cities, and the findings reveal a pattern across neighborhoods of racialized separation among unequal groups. Black women in marginalized communities are uniquely at risk of battering, rape, sexual harassment, stalking and incest. Through the compelling stories of Black women who have been most affected by racism, persistent poverty, class inequality, limited access to support resources or institutions, Beth E. Richie shows that the threat of violence to Black women has never been more serious, demonstrating how conservative legal, social, political and economic policies have impacted activism in the US-based movement to end violence against women. Richie argues that Black women face particular peril because of the ways that race and culture have not figured centrally enough in the analysis of the causes and consequences of gender violence. As a result, the extent of physical, sexual and other forms of violence in the lives of Black women, the various forms it takes, and the contexts within which it occurs are minimized—at best—and frequently ignored. Arrested Justice brings issues of sexuality, class, age, and criminalization into focus right alongside of questions of public policy and gender violence, resulting in a compelling critique, a passionate re-framing of stories, and a call to action for change. Through the stories of prisoners and their families, including her own family’s experiences, Maya Schenwar shows how the institution that locks up 2.3 million Americans and decimates poor communities of color is shredding the ties that, if nurtured, could foster real collective safety. As she vividly depicts here, incarceration takes away the very things that might enable people to build better lives. But looking toward a future beyond imprisonment, Schenwar profiles community-based initiatives that successfully deal with problems—both individual harm and larger social wrongs—through connection rather than isolation, moving toward a safer, freer future for all of us.

2014 Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers

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Award Recipients The South Carolina Chapter honored two SCSU members with awards. Kwanza Winn, President of SCSU chapter was the recipient of a scholarship award. Likewise, Crawford Peterson was presented with the “Outstanding Student Award.”

South Carolina State University (SCSU) Members Attend Annual South Carolina One-Day Conference SCSU members attended the SC NABCJ Chapter’s annual one-day conference which highlighted their work in the community and recognized individuals and organizations for their work in promoting positive community action and criminal justice reform. Attendance at the conference allowed students to become aware of current criminal justice challenges and issues, learn about career opportunities in the criminal justice system, solicit mentors, and network with accomplished criminal justice professionals. SCSU members also served as moderators and session evaluators.

President Kwanza Winn receiving a scholarship award from SC Chapter President Deloris Glymph and Andrea Vaugh

Vice President Crawford Peterson receiving the “Outstanding Student Award” from SC Chapter President Deloris Glymph and Andrea Vaugh

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The Benefits of Attending a Historically Black College: Perspectives from a Student By, Tierra Burkett, Ms. NABCJ North Carolina Central University “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter” –Martin Luther King Jr. As a graduating senior of North Carolina Central University (NCCU), my experiences, as well as, the relationships I have managed to develop with the Alumni in the Division of Institutional Advancement has tremendously reinforced the prominence of attending a Historically Black University, as well as, the necessity of giving back to the community at large. Recently, the North Carolina General Administration curtailed budgeted funds set aside for Historically Black University’s (HBU) in North Carolina. This budget cut impacted not only the Institutional Advancement (IA) department, but impacted both prospective students and the university overall. Nevertheless, the opportunity afforded to me by my association with the Alumni in the Division of Institutional Advancement allowed me to gain valuable knowledge, as well as, meaningful experiences. Furthermore, my involvement with the IA department allowed me to develop a bond with Alumni and presented me with the opportunity to network and build substantive relationships with countless individuals. This experience has greatly benefited me, for through my involvement and experiences working with the IA department the importance of giving back to one’s community through outreach and community service truly afforded me opportunities in networking, as well as, enhanced my marketability given the multitude of skill sets acquired from my experiences. These skills and qualities acquired from my involvement in various community service and outreach initiative are essential in any professional industry. These skill sets are inclusive of my ability to prioritize, as well as, negotiation, administrative, and work management skill; such qualities can be capitalized upon and utilized as learning tools for a variety of different applications and potential employment opportunities. The community service and degree program, in conjunction with my professional and academic preparation at North Carolina Central University (NCCU), provided me with the opportunity to develop stronger organizational, management, and interpersonal skills. As a result, I am able to think hastily in emergency situations that necessitate quick assessments in order to execute decisions while handling the diverse concerns of colleagues and peers. Furthermore, I have become adept at operating with a proper mix of diplomacy and tact; both of which augments my growing success. By working with the Division of Institutional Advancement, I have acquired numerous skills and experiences which further enhances my understanding of how to deal with individuals and their needs. Such skills are warranted, irrespective of the career path to which I choose to embrace subsequent my graduation from NCCU. Throughout the course of my enrollment at NCCU, I have prepared myself with enriched decisionmaking and critical thinking skills necessary in making more informed choices, balancing work and family life, and maintaining flexibility in my relationships with others.

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE DURHAM PUBLIC SCHOOLS ANTI-BULLYING POLICY By, Marcia Ingram Harris North Carolina Central University Bullying in schools illustrates a worldwide problem engendering negative consequences within the dimensions of education, as well as, impairing the right of students to learn in a safe environment devoid of fear or hostility (Harper, 2008). According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ School Crime and Safety Division, thirty percent (30%) of U.S. students in grades six through twelve are involved in moderate or frequent bullying as either the bully or the victim, or as both (Robers, Truman, & Zhang, 2011). The term bullying has no universal definition; however, the American Psychological Association (APA) (2014) defines bullying as a form of aggressive behavior in which someone, namely the perpetrator, intentionally and repeatedly causes another person injury or discomfort. According to the APA, bullying can manifest as physical, verbal, or technological. Similarly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) describes bullying as an act in which an individual or a collective repeatedly attempts to inflict harm on someone whose weaker, or someone whose perceived as being weak. Occasionally, bullying involves a direct attack, such as hitting, name calling, as well as, teasing or taunting another person. Furthermore, an act of bullying can involve an indirect attack, such as spreading rumors about another person or through rejection, a form of bullying in which the perpetrator convinces other people to reject the victim or the intended target of the bullying act. Essentially, bullying represents a multifaceted act of violence, encompassing both indirect and direct attacks. To begin with, research literature reveals that a substantial number of children, identified as victims of bullying, also perpetrated acts of bullying. One study found that about one third of children who have either bullied others or were bullied themselves were identified as bully-victims (Marini, Dane, Bosacki, and YLC-CURA, 2006). David Schwartz, Associate Professor of Psychology and Education at the University of Southern California, conducted a research project within the Los Angeles school district examining problems of bullying, levels of popularity and unpopularity between bullies and victims, as well as, the quality of their respective friendships. Findings from the study revealed that one of the distinguishing features of the bully-victim dynamic is the underlining struggle to control their emotions. For example, given the difficulty in controlling ones’ emotions, the act of bullying might serve as a means in which children gain control over their uncontrollable emotions by bullying others; as a result, the victim reacts emotionally to actions of his or her perpetrator (Schwartz, 2013). In addition, bullying varies substantially in severity, types, and magnitude. Olweus (1992) describes bullying by types and severity, yet according to Olweus, the most common types of bullying, mostly concentrated within schools, include: (a) physical bullying, (b) verbal bullying, and (c) relational aggression. Most recently, cyberbullying, which is form of bullying that involves the use of technology (i.e., the Internet, cell phone, or other technology) has emerged as the newly evolved form of bullying. Given the widespread usage of the Internet, mobile devices, and other forms of mass communication, cyberbullying remains prominent, harassing, threatening, and embarrassing the intended target(s) or the object(s) of the bullying act(s) (Hinduja & Patchin 2009). Provided the nationwide rise in bullying, this project scrutinizes the anti-bullying policy in Durham Public Schools in order to ascertain how compliant local schools are relative to these policies. Once ascertained, this paper will seek to offer recommendations for reducing bullying in schools with the hopes of eliminating the act altogether. In addition, in order to gain more knowledge on the effectiveness of the anti-bullying policy, as well as, the compliancy of local schools, the author will shadow the principal of Hillside High school. According to the anti-bullying policy, if juveniles are non-compliant; in other words, if juveniles do not adhere to the guidelines delineated within the anti-bullying policy, they face sanctioning which involves being adjudicated in juvenile court, or potentially being detained to a juvenile detention center. As such, states are encouraged to analyze their own anti-bullying policy in hopes of reducing spending. More specifically, In 2007, states spent an average of $5.7 billion on the imprisonment of 64,558 youth who were committed to residential facilities (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2008).The per diem costs of locking up one young person in a juvenile facility was estimated to range from $24 in Wyoming to $726 in Connecticut. However, the American Correctional Association (ACA) estimates that, on average, it costs states $240.99 per day (around $88,000 a year) for every youth incapacitated within a juvenile facility (American Correctional Association, 2008).

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Close scrutiny of North Carolina, specifically in 2010, revealed that nearly 804 youth were involved in residential placements. The cost to house these youth, per day, totaled $262 for each individual. The total cost per day based on total population was $210,648 a day (American Correctional Association, 2010). Violations of North Carolina's bullying law are sanctioned as a Class 1 Misdemeanor, if the defendant is over the age of 18 at the time of the offense. An individual receives a Class 2 Misdemeanor when they are under the age of 18. For minors who are convicted under the cyberbullying statute, it is also possible for the court to defer judgment, place the minor on probation, and upon their successful completion of probation, have their records expunged. (NC Gen Stat 115C-407.15) According to the most recent national data, approximately 1,069 facilities (36 percent of all juvenile facilities, inclusive of facilities that employ makeshift beds to house additional youth) are at or over their capacity for housing youth sanctioned for violating anti-bullying policy (Washington, DC: National Center for Juvenile Justice, 2010). Large facilities, holding more than 100 youth, are more likely to experience problems with overcrowding which increases acts of suicidal behavior, stress-related illnesses, and psychiatric problems (Washington, DC: National Center for Juvenile Justice, 2010).

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Overall, the vitality of this paper warrants further examination into the innumerable explanations accounting for bullying in schools, as well as, the implications of these different policies and practices, which are already established, on reducing the degree of bullying within school systems, as well as, combating the issue altogether. This analysis formulated eight questions in order to help understand if bully/victim problems in schools were being appropriately addressed by the Durham Public Schools policy currently in place. Answers to these questions revealed little to no means of effectively combating bullying behavior in schools. Therefore, in applying bullying policies and procedures, schools should consider the strengths and limitations of each suggested recommendation and the appropriateness of its application to particular bully/victim problems. The anti-bullying law, passed in North Carolina, represents a monumental step in the right direction, for such legislation better protects administrators, staff, and students by facilitating a positive learning environment. It is important for everyone in the community to work together as a collective and convey a unified message against bullying; however, this is not always the case. To ensure that the Durham Anti-bullying policy is known to all parents and students, the following steps are recommended: 1. The launch of an anti-bullying awareness campaign. This will be necessary to make the objectives known to the school, parents, and community members. 2. Establish a school safety committee or task force to plan, implement, and evaluate the school's bullying prevention program. 3. Administrators must ensure that the code of conduct is known by students and parents. 4. Establish a bullying reporting system. 5. Embracing of a climate in which bullying is not acceptable, that is, establish a school culture of acceptance, tolerance and respect. 6. Disseminate information on the anti-bullying policy through different mediums such as staff meetings; assemblies; class and parent meetings; newsletters to families; the school website; and the student handbook to establish a positive climate at school. Reinforce positive social interactions and inclusiveness. 7. The inclusion of bullying prevention materials in the curriculum and school activities. 8. The training of teachers and staff on the school’s rules and policies. This would give them the skills to intervene consistently and appropriately. 9. The inclusion of the rights for victims and the process and procedure for working with them.

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A Qualitative Investigation of Latino High School and College Students’ Access to Higher Education By, Keosha Draughn North Carolina Central University Since the 1970s, immigration has been the fastest and largest source of Latino growth in the United States (Suro & Passel, 2003). According to the 2013 U.S. Census Bureau’s Population Survey, there were approximately 54 million Latinos living in the United States, making the Latino population the nation’s largest ethnic group. According to Suro and Passel (2003), the Latino population has undergone a fundamental generational change. Moreover, since 2003, there has been an increase in the number of births of Latino children, as well as, an increase in the number of Latino minors migrating into the United States. As a result of this wave of young Latinos entering and enrolling in the United States’ school system, recent figures indicate a rise in the population of Latino youth. Presently, in the United States, the responsibility of providing students with the tools, essential in their prospective success and achievement, rest on the school districts. However, given the rise in the adolescent populations of Latinos, the focus shifts on whether school systems are equipped at effectively and efficiently supporting these students. Consequently, Latino students face numerous adversities relative to their academic endeavors. For example, some students are faced with non-English speaking parents, which results in a lack of parental involvement in their children’s educational journey, especially as it pertains to assisting with homework assignments and school work. Some students, also, experience language barriers both at home and within the confines of school. Such barriers are more prominent within the school setting where transitional language courses are not offered to students, thus limiting their ability to effectively articulate their thoughts or ideas. Additionally, some of the schools attended by Latino students are in disadvantaged communities where limited resources and capital deficits further impede on the educational attainment of Latino students. As a result of these challenges, a substantial number of Latino students drop out of school despite the plethora of opportunities for new immigrants to enroll and succeed in higher educational institutions provided changes immigration policies and practices (Baum & Flores, 2011). Nonetheless, additional factors, such as financial constraints and parents with limited education, further contribute to the underachievement of Latino immigrants. According to Nora and Crisp (2009), less than half of all Latino students in the United States are qualified to enroll in 4-year institutions. However, according to a census data analysis by the Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project (2009), the college enrollment rates for Latino high school graduates increased and surpassed those of their White counterparts. However, despite this increase in enrollment, rates remain significantly lower in terms of completion and degree attainment for Latino students compared with White students (Nora & Crisp, 2009). In regards to the criminal justice system, the current study focuses on the availability of resources afforded Latino populations within the United States. Prior research indicates that an inverse correlation between level of education and criminality exists; therefore, higher levels of criminality are associated with lower levels of education. Thus, provided that drop-out rates for Latino youth enrolled in schools within the United States are high, this would suggest that their propensity for engaging in criminogenic activity is intensified. Currently, crime reduction is a high priority for public policy given the substantial benefits, both economically and socially. While research on the determinants of crime emphasizes several solutions for reducing crime, improving levels of education amongst marginalized populations, such as Latino populations, proves effective in reducing crime. Current literature unearths a number of studies examining the relationship between ones’ involvement in crime and their level of education. Typically, these studies report that less educated individuals are more likely to engage in crime (Machin, Marie & Vujic, 2010). As such, current policies and practices should enhance the quality of education, as well as, provide programs and interventions for students experiencing adversities both within and outside of school.

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